PORTOPOLIO BAHASA INGGRIS

ENGLISH FORTFOLIO

By

                             Name                             : SUSAN ASMARANI

             NIM                               : E1A011059

               Study Program              : BIOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF MAHEMATICS AND SCIENCE

 FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MATARAM

2011

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

           All praises just to our God which always save us, given healthy and change to me to  finished this portfolio. Which bring us from  the darkness to the brightness one and also showed  us the true way of this life.

This portfolio was undertaken  while at biology education, department of mathematic and science. The faculty of teacher training Mataram University at semester 1. I would like to thanks to Dr. H. A Wahab Jufri, M.Sc, my lecturer English course, for his suggestion and correction on this portfolio and also for his leading or guidance during may study in semester 1. Special thanks to may beloved family for their  valuable support and attention on my study. For making this portfolio batter in the next, I really expect your critics and your suggestion.

At the last I hope this portfolio will be accepted and my given more advantages for all of us.

Mataram, 21 December 2011

Writer

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

THE PAGE OF CERTIFICATION………………………………………………………… i

COURSE CONTRACTS…………………………………………………………………… ii

ACKNOWLELEDEMENT………………………………………………………………… iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………………… iv

ENGLISH JOURNAL……………………………………………………………………… 1

FORMULA…………………………………………………………………………………. 15

SMALL BUT MIGHTY……………………………………………………………………. 17

THE SNAKES………………………………………………………………………………. 22

SEWAGE, SLUDGE AND SCUM………………………………………………………… 28

CROCODILES…………………………………………………………………………….. 30

LION……………………………………………………………………………………….. 32

PART ONE ( ENGLISH STRUCTURE )………………………………………………….. 34

PART TWO…………………………………………………………………………………. 40

INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………….. 43

SELF EVALUATION……………………………………………………………………… 54

ENGLISH JOURNAL

 

Self Reflective Journal

                                                         1 and 2 st Meeting

 

Tuesday, 6th September 2011                            

In the early meeting, indirect teacher give lesson. But introduce of self. And at the moment, my teacher the storying a elittle jouney of his life, especially ladder education him. I am very  marvel at he. That moment is I think, what I can like that? And than after wards, he give fotocofy to us all about lesson one semester. Besides he also explaining to that lec turing method. As for contract of yarus signed, which where, whit that signature meaning us agree to execute lecturing for next week. For first meeting only that its activity.

The second meeting, lesson of lecturing start to be submitted. Before submitting lesson, teacher start to read content of that contract. First content is we are in errand to make journal. Hitting, how our comments at lecturing, first week. That journal will in collecting next week. And than start at for warding of first lesson of lecturing that is introduction. That moment there is one of  us to read off first paragraph from a lesson found on that fotocofi. I also get innings to read a example of that lesson. That is, time-age-epoch. As for orther duty, that is irrand to make group of words as subject/noun group. Which is have pettern to. Adjective+adjective+head noun related to biological sciench. And will be collected by next week with that journal.Self Reflective Journal

3rd Meeting

 

Tuesday, September 20th 2011

The third meeting, studying about is various kind of formula for group of words. I am feeling lesson of lecturing in this time not is difficult and very happy of stuying it. The teacher, ordering one by one from us for reading and giving example formula for the group of words, adjective + adjective + HN which have assigning week yesterday. I am very want and I hoping so that in arrand for reading example formula for the group of words  like all my friends, because I am very understand with the topic lesson of that moment. All student is very motivated and enthusiastic of that moment. According to me all student very understand at the third meeting that moment there is four formula for the group of words which we study. That is meeting very pleasant, difference with yesterday because week yesterday I am not understand. Self Reflective Journal

 

5th meeting

 

Friday, October 7th 2011 In the early meeting to five, one of my friend in errand to narrative activity of us on thursday by using English and my friend to say “ we studying belajar dan pembelajaran “  but  my teacher to say “ if past eccurence, have to use past tenses that is we have studied belajar dan pembelajaran. In the meeting te five that, we have studied six formula in the noun groups. But there is one of my friend enquiring and my friend to say “ what the function we studying this word groups ? “ the teacher answer “ the function is at the time when you make paragraph, duty, and onther. And all of you understand if studying the next topic.

At the meeting the lecturer told me his experience during in Australia. It also make me so interested to studied hard. The lecturer said to us,”study at the foreign was so easy.. you only need still in the English like speeking and writing..”

Any event which make the lecturer and us though that it not good in the studied. Malika, once my friend maybe have forgot switch off her handphone. So if  the lecturer have explaned us about the subject, her handphone was ring.But over all the last meeting make me got more inspiration especially from the lecturer.

SELF REFLECTIVE JOURNAL

6rd Meeting

 

Friday, October 14th 2011

The early meeting to six, the teacher order us to reading words which is have factor tree pettern to which assigned by at meeting to five yesterday. Some from my friend reading to words, but there is one of the my friend which feel nervous, so that in the word forest he mention letter L. And than after reading that words we studied new topic that is the verb which among studied about optional e;ements in the verb group. In this topic I is ordered reading off one paragraph that is about auxialiaries.

And this my first time to order for to read a paragraph by teacher at this lesson. Although my first time, I do not feel nervous or tremble because I have a little a adapting whit my friends and my teacher. In that meeting all student very enthusiastic its motivation very high studied this topic.

SELF REFLECTIVE JOURNAL

7th Meeting

Friday, 04th of November 2011

On Friday 4th November 2011. We were begun to study lesson 3 of part 2. We begun to activity reading comprehension and vocabulary enrichness. Mr. Wahab commanded us to identify main sentence in paragraph, answer the question according to task 12, identify Head Noun and Main Verb in paragraph, and find new word that we don’t know the maining. First, Mr. wahab had an idea to do TPS ,that we must to do metods TPS(think,pair,and share). We discussed the paragraph with our friend beside us. Each group consist of 2 or 3 member. Ulfa desi is my group. We discussed the paragraph which has themes The planarians.

We begun to read identify paragraph one. We identify the main sentence. According to ulfa desi nawansari and I decided that the main verb of the first paragraph is free-living flatworms are grouped in the class turberallia. Mr. Wahab asked Annafianissa to decided the main sentence. Our answer were same. Then Mr.Wahab help us to understand what word that we didn’t know. After t Mr. wahab asked Dana to conclude the first paragraph with Indonesian.

After that we were going to the second paragraph. But before it Ifti and Jumatun answer the question number one that is In which class are the planarians grouped ? and the answer is Turbellaria.

The main sentence  of the second paragraph is a planarian has a simple digestive system. The new word word for me are extended ,and a branched sac. Extended mean “diulurkan” and a branched sac mean “ kantung bercabang”. Sac is the head noun and Branched is noun. so that is the noun group.

Self Evaluations

I didn’t  know many words in this lesson. I still confused these noun group, these are “ a few ” in paragraph one and line six. What the maining of these noun group? As we know  “ a “ is determiners also can be number, few is number which more than one. Is not just few? And why used a few?.

 

SELF REFLECTIVE JOURNAL

8nd Meeting

Tuesday, 4rd  November 2011

At the last meeting, any something which different class at the time. Why? Because for the first time in the English class if any students came late, the lecturer closed the door and didn’t allowed them to joint with us in the class. And why I said it the first time? Because, sometime ago at the same meeting the lecturer never did it.

Before open the study, the lecturer devide us became some club,one club include 2-3 students. It method so fun for me, because it make us take easy in the studied. It the first time we discuss about text, that is about planarian.

The lecturer asksed one by one of the club.  My  partner in the club  and I became the second club whom lecturer ask. Fortunatlly  my club got simple question from the lecturer. Altought I understood the text enough. I felt good to discuss the text with my partner or all of people in the class. I felt confidence to spoke up if the lecturer asked to us, it cause I could understood the text with easy.

But any massage from the lecturer which make me awake. The lecturer said that rule which the students of  high school aplication more good than us. Because we couldn’t arranged the sit method like if we high school. Not only me but all of my friends also did like me. May be they also though as me though.

Thanks a lot sir, you remembred us..!!

SELF REFLECTIVE JOURNAL

9nd Meeting

Friday ,November 13th 2011

Today’s course is about the life of animal. More specifically, its about how does an amoeba move, how do snake move, how do bats find their way in the dark, how does a caterpillar turn into butterfly, how does camel conserve the water, how do bees make a honey. Luckily, we shouldn’t translate all of that article on our own. The lecturer divide us into a group, when each group had their own text. My groupmate is Iin amelia, we were translate the text about how do bees make a honey.

The lecturer want us to tell by our own word the steps of how do bees make a honey. We had tell it systematically, like using firstly, secondly, after that, and finally. After we do that, then each of the group had to presentated their own work in the front of the class. Then let another student to comment their presentation, whether its about asking or giving an advice. After all the groups had presented their text, then we closed the class together.

Self Evaluation
From todays lesson, I learn that the most important thing of being a student of biology is I have to think systematically. Like when I make a process of something, I have to use words like firstly, secondly, after that, then, and finally.

Self Reflective Journal

10st Meeting

 

Friday, November 18th 2011

Todays lesson is about lesson 11, it’s the text of Sewage, Sludge, and Scum. In here we had to translate the text and answer the task after that. The text is quite easy to understand but still had some new words for us. This text are really usefull, since we mostly heard many problems within it. Actually, this time the lecturer didn’t lead us for every sentence to translate them. We had to do it on our own. And after that, we answer the question of the text. So, in here we answer it together and the lecturer also translate some sentence for us. But for number 6 to 10, it seems the answer are pretty difficult. But luckily, we were able to answer it all. Finally, the time’s up and we end the class together.

Self Evaluation
Well, actually I’m not fit for today’s lesson. So I do the task quite reckless, and the bad things about it, is mr.Wahab  look at my task. He then asked me from which sentence I got the answer and I just answer it spontanity without thinking too well. So in the end, I’m the one whose at a wrong side. What a bad day I think. Not just that, mr.wahab then say a word that catch my attention’s the most. It is “if you only good at speaking, but you ain’t good at reading . You will end by being a tourist guide” oh gosh! Those words really-really stab my heart. And then from these day I learn that I shouldn’t ignore my reading skill.

Self Reflective Journal

11st Meeting

Friday, November 25th 2011

Todays lesson is not same like the previous meets. Today we study english at 2 PM of Friday. Exactly it was after jumatan. The reason for that is, the new lecturer mr.Imam can’t teach us in the morning due to he had another  subject to teach for the 3rd semester student. So we change the time but same the day. The object that we’re study about is out of a content of student hand book. Mr.Imam gave us another article. It was about Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution. In here, he asked us to try translating the text. But it seems not many of us may be able to understand it well. Unfortunately, we weren’t able to finish the text at all. Its just until the first pharagraph. Because, there are pretty new and difficult words. Not just that, mr.imam also gave me something new. That the word “ness” in word like selfishness mean “ke” in Bahasa. We also discuss about the word dislikes and word dissolve. Even though those two words using the word dis-. It doesn’t mean it had the same function. I mean the word dis- in dislikes describe the opposite word of likes. While dis- in dissolve doesn’t mean the opposite of solve. So the point is, the adding word of dis- depends of the word using after that. It also mean that dis- not always refer to un-.

Self Evaluation
now I know the using of dis-. It doesn’t mean to what I ever thought before. All the thanks I give to mr.imam for this case. Not just that, he also teach me about the using of –ness, i.e selfishness. The adding word of ness here mean in bahasa is “ke-egoisan”.

Self Reflective Journal

12st Meeting

 

Tuesday, November 29th 2011

Todays lesson is we were continue the previous text that had been given. Now we continue it to the second pharagraph and try to translate it. Like the previous meet before, mr.Imam asked a student to translate it and speak up their translation. So we did listen to every translation. If we had heard some translation were wrong. We fixed it together, so the wrong one could be lead to the right one. Actually todays lesson was probably same like the previous meet. All we did just translate every single sentence of the text. So in the end, we only could translate it until the third pharagraph. After that, we close the class together.

Self Evaluation
from todays lesson I learn that in order to improve our vocabularies. One of the most effective ways is by reading. Even though its just a short text. Just read it and try to translate it.

Self Reflective Journal

13 st Meeting

Tuesday, December 6 th 2011

The object we study today is same like the meet before. All we have to do here is just translate and translate every single word, sentence, pharagraph. I kind of feel bored, cause a couple days before is translating the same text. It seems like not only me who feel bored, I could tell by the word how’s my other friends feel. I can see it from their face. What a a funny face if I think about it back then. Okay, Back to the topic, the way of translation today seems little different from before. Here, we had to write our translation in the whiteboard while mr.imam only gave us a short time to translate it by ourself. The name whose being called is random. It depend on the absent . some of my friends got their own nerves and I can see it clearly from their expression. And then, something surprise me a lot. I was being called and had to translate quite-long sentence. Oh gosh! I’m not noticed it before. So I asked mr.imam to gave me a time to think about it first. Thanks to god, the words of the sentence not really difficult to translate. So I do it well, and mr.imam agree with my translation. Finally, we finished the whole text and coincidence, the time’s up too. So we end the together.

Self Evaluation
well, actually its not as bored as I think. I learn that it would be better if we translate a text together. Cause we can fix our translation together, while our translation were not 100% right.

Self Reflective Journal

14 st Meeting

 

Tuesday, December, 13th 2011

Today’s lesson is about lesson 10. It was the humans body. This text mainly tell us about how the organs of our body’s work. The text are how do you digest food, how do you hear, how do your kidneys work, how does your heart work, and how does a baby develop. Luckily, mr. Imam lead us a way to translate them. He just pointed the students or asked for a volunteer to translate them. He did never angry or disappointed whenever we translate it wrong. Cause he always said “english is a mistake” what a kind and wise words they are. Back to the topic, actually we just waste the time by translate every of them. From word to word, sentence to sentence, pharagraph to paragraph. And finally, we didn’t realize that the time is up. So we end the class together.

Self Evaluation
through today’s lesson, I learn a little things about biology. Especially in english of course. I guess, if the lecturer kept giving us such a kind of article like this, we will be prepared more as the student of PGBI.

Self Reflective Journal

15 st Meeting

 

Tuesday, December 20 th 2011

Our english course today is about translating the text of lesson 12 in hand book. It definitely about  Small but Mighty. Overall, this text mainly tell us about wood decay, the cause of wood decay,how to prevent the wood decay, and where’s mostly the wood decay occur, I mean the place, region, and so on. The method of todays translation is same like the previos 2 meet before. It was speak up our translation. We also find some new words that even mr.Imam are still wondering about. It were “Mold”,  and “Sapwood”. Not only that, we also found some words that unappropiate written. Also we erase some words which is shouldn’t be. Finally, after we translate the whole text. We end the class together.

Self Evaluation
I learn something new about how to prevent wood decay. It was quite valuable knowledge I guess.

FORMULA

Task 1

{ A } HN

  1. Handsome  young man
  2. Small red ant
  3. Smart young boy
  4. White long snake
  5. Beautiful white flower

Task 2

{ Adv } A* HN

  1. Really big green water melon
  2. A very old black car
  3. Poisonely green long snake
  4. Highly big white building
  5. Very tall green tree
  6. Really clean large room
  7. Very small brown mouse

Task 3

{ num } { Adv } A*HN

  1. Two very small soft animal
  2. Many very large green plant
  3. Three highly tall big building

Task 4

{ Det } { Num } { Adv } A*HN

  1. These two really small black ant
  2. This one veryfast white car
  3. That one very beautiful white rose
  4. These three really dangerous brown lion
  5. The poisonely big black scorpion
  6. The extremely dangerous high temperature
  7. This one very old black train
  8. The highly big great building

Task 5

{ Det } { num } { adv } A* { N } { HN }

  1. This one very hitch silver atm engine
    1. These two really dirty big rubbish truck
    2. That one very cold small ice cream box
  2. Those a lot very beautiful white sands beach

Task 6

{ Det } { num } { adv } A* { N } HN { Adj}

  1. This one very great small mobile phone on the shelf
  2. These two really good black hair dryer on the table

SMALL BUT MIGHTY

Wood decay is caused by small plants called fungi. The organism cannot life on wood that has a moisture content of less than 30%. The wood in most well built home is safe because the moisture content is rarely above 15%. The way to stop decay is simple “keep wood dry”.

Keeping wood dry is not always that easy to do. The outside walls of the house are open to rain that blows against them. Soil carries water. It can wet any wood that touches it. Also, if there plumping leaks in your home, the inside wood can wet.

Wood must be kept dry all times because wood soaks up water and holds it for a long time. From time to time, heavy rains can supply enough water for decay to begin.

If you know that wood will become wet, it can be protected. Wood can be treated with preservatives. For long time safety, to preservative should be put on the under pressure. If the wood comes in touch with the ground, only pressure treatment will do the job. Some pieces of the wood that only get wet from time to time can be treated to stop decay by brushing on a preservative. The correct chemical to use for treatment depends upon what the wood is user for. Some chemicals give off a terrible smell. These are not good for use indoors. Others cause paint to peel. You should mention what the wood is used for when you buy the preservative.

Mold and stain fungi can attack wood. Molds grow mainly on the surface but may get inside the outer sap wood. The dark color caused by mold on wood can be removing by light sanding. Stain fungi go beyond the outer layers and cause a dark color that cannot be removed. Both molds and stain feed on wood. By themselves, they do not decay or weaken the wood. But, the do increase the wood’s ability to take on and hold moisture. Thus, they increase the possibility of future decay. If you see signs of the molds and stain fungi, you may have a problem.

Wood decays slowly at the temperatures below 40 degrees Fahrenheit. So, decay is more repaid in the South than North. Decay is also more rapid in humid than dry regions, even though the plants that caused decay are present everywhere though out the United States.

KECIL TAPI HEBAT

Kayu busuk akan menyebabkan tumbuhnya tumbuhan kecil yang disebut jamur atau fungi. Organism tersebut tidak bisa hidup pada kayu yang memiliki kelembaban kurang dari 30%. Kayu pada bangunan yang kokoh aman karena tingkat kelembapan pada kayu dibawah 15%. Caa untuk menghentikan pembusukan adalah mudahyaitu dengan cara “menjaga kekeringan kayu”.

Menjaga kekeringan kayu tidak selalu mudah dilakukan. Pada dinding luar rumah yang terbuka saat hujan yang menimbulkannya lagi. Tanah yang mengandung air. Air membasahi setiap kayu yang menyentuhnya. Juga, jika mendapatkan kebocoran di rumahmu, yang menyebabkan kayu basah.

Kayu harus tetap kering sepanjang waktu karena kayu  merendam air dan menyimpannya dalam waktu yang cukup lama. Dari waktu ke waktu hujan lebat bisa menyediakan air untuk pembusukan ang selanjutnya.

Jika kamu tahu bahwa kayu akan mendatangkannya, dia bisa menjadi pelindung. Kayu bisa menjadi benar-benar dengan bahan pengawet. Untuk perwaktuan jangka panjang, pelindung harus diletakkan dibawah tekanan (tertekan). Jika kayu bersentuhan dengan tanah tekanan tersebut yang akan melindungi kayu. Beberapa bagian dari kayu yang selalu basah dari waktu ke waktu bisa tahan lama, bisa dilindungi dengan mengoleskan bahan pengawet pada kayu tersebut. Bahan kimia yang tepat untuk digunakan tergantung pada kegunaan dari kayu itu. Beberapa bahan kimia mengeluarkan bau yang keras sekali. Bahan kimia tersebut tidak baik digunakan didalam rumah. Beberapa bahan kimia yang lain menyebabkan cat terkelupas. Kamu harus menyebutkan/menjelaskan kayu itu untuk apa ketika anda membeli bahan pengawet.

Jamur dan noda jamur dapat melindungi kayu. Jamur tumbuh sebagian besar pada permukaan, tapi bisa juga pada bagian dalam sebuah luar getah kayu. Warna gelapdisebabkan oleh jamur pada kayu dan dapat dihilangkan dengan amplas yang ringan. Warna jamur melebihi lapisa luar dari kayu yang menyebabkan warna gelap tidak dapat dihilangkan. Kedua jamur dan noda memakan kayu. Dengan diri mereka sendiri, mereka tidak membusukkan atau memakan kayu. Tetapi, mereka mereka dapat menambah kemampuan kayu melakukan dan menjaga kelembapan. Jadi, mereka menambahkan kemungkinan busuk dikemudian hari. Jika kamu melihat tanda-tanda dari jamur dan noda, kamu mungkin mempunyai sebuah masalah.

Kayu membusuk perlahan pada temperatur antara 40 derajat Fahreinheit. Jadi, pembusukan lebih cepat terjadi di selatan dari pada di utara. Pembusukan kayu juga lebih cepat terjadi ditempat lembab dari pada tempat panas, meskipun tanaman yang menyebabkan pembusukan ada dimana-mana di seluruh Amerika Serikat

 SNAKES

Snake is one example of reptile which classified into the order squamata, whose name means scaly. Snakes have long, thin bodies that are covered with scales. Snakes do not have limbs. There are 3000 species of snakes. Some well known species are rattlesnakes, garter snakes, and water snakes. Generally, snakes paly an important and positive role in nature.

Most snake are non poisonous. Some snakes kill their prey by holding it against the ground and swallowing it alive and whole. The indigo snake and the black racer, for example, are nonpoisonous snakes that obtain food in this way. To take in large prey, the jaws of many snakes are specially hinged to open more widely than usual. Other nonpoisonous snake are constrictors. These wrap themselves around their prey and suffocate it by squeezing with muscular force. The constrictors the swallow the dead prey whole. Rat snakes, the phyton, is a nonpoisonous constrictor. It grows as long as 10 meters, and can consume a small pig.

Poisonous snakes kill their prey by injecting venom, or poison, through a pair of fangs. The fangs, located at the front of the mouth, are large, hollow, curved teeth. The venom moves downs through each fang from a gland either side of the head. These glands make and release venom. There are three families of poisonous snakes. The venomous snakes of two of the families have a pair of tubelike fangs that are always erect. The third family is vipers, which have fangs that are attached to a movable bone. That fangs fold back against the roof of the mouth when not in use.

The first family includes many of the most venomous snakes, such as the cobra, the mamba, and north American coral snake. The coral snake has blunt head and a body with broad rings of red and black that are separated by narrow yellow bands on the scarlet king snake, however, are different from those of the coral snake.

The sea snakes are members of the second family of venomous snakes with nonmovable fangs. These snakes live permanently in the ocean, preying on fish. These very venomous snakes are found in the pacific ocean off the coast of Australia. Many fishermen have been fatally bitten by sea snakes accidentally caught in the fish nets. The old world vipers include the poisonous snakes of Europe, Asia, and Africa, except the cobra. The puff adder belongs to this family, and is the most common poisonous snakes in Africa. It is responsible for more snake bite cases than any other African species.

The pit vipers include the rattlesnake, the copperhead, and the water moccasin of North America. Their name comes from the deep pits on the sides of their heads. These pits are heat-sensing organs that help pit vipers locate warm-blooded prey. The water moccasin eats fish, ducks, and frogs. Copperheads eat mice, other snakes, frogs and toads. The rattlesnake feeds on mice, rats, rabbits and the young of ground-nesting birds.

When a pit viper strikes, its fangs spring forward as the jaws open. The muscles of the poison gland force the venom through canals in the fangs and into the prey. The venom of most snakes is made up of two poisons. One is a hemotoxin, or substance that destroys red blood cells and that alters blood clotting. The other is a neurotoxin, which interferes with the normal function of the nervous system. The neurotoxin causes difficulty in breathing and swallowing it can also interfere with the function of the heart. The sea snakes have a venom that affects muscles.

ULAR

Ular  adalah salah satu contoh dari reptile yang di klasifikasikan ke dalam kelas Squamata, yang namanya memiliki arti bersisik. Ular memiliki tubuh yang panjang dan kecil yang di tutupi oleh sisik. Ular tidak memiliki kaki. Ular memiliki sekitar 3000 spesies. Beberapa spesies yang di kenal antara lain rattlesnake, gartersnake, dan ular air. Pada umumnya, ular memainkan sebuah peranan penting dan posilit di dalam alam.

Kebanyakan ular tidak beracun. Beberapa ular membunuh mangsa mereka dengan menelannya bulat-bulat dalam keadaan hidup. Ular nila dan black racer, sebagai contoh, adalah ular tidak beracun yang memperoleh maanan dengan jalan seperti itu. Untuk menangkap yang lebih besar, ular melebarkan rahangnya agar membuka lebih luas dari biasnya. Jenis ular tidak berbisa lainnya adalah konstriktor atau pelilit. Mereka melilitkan tubuh mereka di sekeliling tubuh mangsa mereka dan melemahkannya dengan cara menekannya dengan menggunakan kekuatan otot mereka. Ular pelilit menelan mangsa yang telah mati dengan utuh. Rattlesnake, ular raja, dan boa memangsa korban mereka dengan jalan seperti itu. Salah satu ular yang ukurannya termasuk paling besar, piton, adalah jenis ular pelilit yang tidak berbisa. Ular ini dapat tumbuh hingga mencapai 10 meter, dan dapat memakan seekor babi kecil.

Ular berbisa membunuh mangsa  mereka dengn menyuntikkan venom, atau racun, melalui sepasang taring. Taring, yang terletak di bagian mulut depan, yang hias, gigi yang berlekuk. Racun di keluarkan melalui setiap taring dari sebuah kelenjar di atas sisi kepala. Kelenjar ini berfungsi dan mengeluarkan venom.

Ada tiga keluarga dari ular berbisa. Dua keluarga dintaranya memiliki taring yang di dalamnya terdapat saluran yang selalu menegang. Keluarga ke tiga adalah jenis ular kecil yang berbisa (viper), yang memiliki taring yang melekat ke tulang rawan. Taring ini melipat ke belakang berlawanan dengan langit-langit ketika tidak di gunakan.

Keluarga pertama termasuk dalam kelompok ular paling berbisa, seperti kobra,ular mamba,dan ular krang Amerika Utara. Ular karang memiliki kepala tumpul dan tmbuh dengan garis lingkar merah dan hitam yang lebar yang dipisahkan oleh linkaran kuning yang kecil. Hal ini sering di bingungkan dengan ular raja merah yang tidak berbahaya, yang memiliki formulasi warna yang mirip dengan ular karang. Jenis ular raja dengan warna merah, hitam, dan kuning, bagaimanapun juga berbeda dengan corak warna yang dimiliki ular karang.

Ular laut termasuk anggota keluarga kedua dari ular berbisa dengan taring kaku. Ular ini hidup permanen di dalam laut, memangsa ikan. Ular yang sangat berbisa ini dapat di temukan di samudera pasifik lepas dari pesisir Australia. Banyak nelayan yang telah digigit dengan fatal oleh ular laut sengaja tertangkap dijaring ikan. The old word vipers dan pit vipers termasuk dalam family ketiga dari ular berbisa The old word vipers termasuk ular berbisa dari Eropa, dan Afrika, kecuali Kobra. The puff adders termasuk dalam family ini, dan merupakan ualr berbisa paling biasa di Afrika.

Pit vipers termasuk dalam kelompok rattlesnake, yaitu jenis ular yang berbisa, dan jenis ular air yang hidup di danau Amerika Utara. Nama ini berasal dari kedalamn lubang yang terdapat di sisi kepala mereka. Lubang ini adalh organ yang terasa panas yang menolong pit viper untuk mengetahui lokasi mangsa berdarah panas. Ular air yang hidup di danau memangsa ikan-ikan, bebek, dan katak. Jenis ular berbisa memangsa tikus, jenis ular lain, dan katak. Sedangkan rattlesnake memangsa tikus, kelinci, dan burung-burung muda yang baru keluar dari sarang.

Ketika seekor pit vipers menyerang, taring-taringnya menerkam ke depan seperti rahang yang membuka. Otot kelenjar racun mendorong racun keluar melalui saluran di dalam taring dan di masukkan ke dalam tubuh mangsa. Racun dari kebanyakan ular di buat dari du jenis racun. Pertama adalah hemotoksin, atau substansi yang mengganggu sel darah merah dan menyebabkan penggumpalan darah. Yang lainnya adalah neurotoksin, yang mengganggu pungsi normal system saraf. Neurotoksin menyebabkan kesulitan bernafas dan menelan. Ini jug adapt mengganggu fungsi jantung. Ular-ular laut memiliki racun yang memmpengaruhi kerja otot.

Question Of The Topic Of “Snake”

  1. List the characteristic of snake, and it is examples !
  2. What are the example of the constrictors snake ?
  3. List the differences between poisonous and nonpoisoinous snake ?
  4. Explain how do snakes move !
  5. List the family name of snakes !
  6. What are the meaning in Indonesian
    1. Fang                      d. hematoxin
    2. Prey                       e. Blood Clotting
    3. Venomous             f. swallowing

Answers Of The Topic Of “Snakes”

  1. Characteristic of snakes :

– Have long and thin bodies

– The bodies of snakes are covered with scales

– Don’t have limbs

Example: Phyton, Sea snakes, Garter snakes, Rattlesnakes, Cobra, King snakes, Boas, ect.

  1. Some example of contictors snake:

Rat snakes, King snakes, Boas, and Phyton.

  1. Poisonous:

–          Kill their prey by injecting venom or poison.

–          It has poison.

–          They use their fangs to kill their prey.

Nonpoisonous:

–          Kill their by holding it against and swallowing it alive and whole.

–          It doesn’t has poison.

–          They use muscular force to kill their prey.

  1. Snakes move by bend aside their bodies to reach some places. They used theirmusculr contraction force to move.
  1. The families of snakes:
    1. Venomous snake with moveable fangs.

Ex: Cobra, Mamba, and the North American Coral snakes.

  1. Venomous snake with non moveable fangs.

Ex: Sea snakes

  1. Vipers or small posinous snakes.
  2. a. Fang                                    : Taring beracun

b. Prey                         : Mangsa

c. Venomous               : Memiliki venom / bercun venom.

d. Hemotoxin              : Racun ular yang menyerang hemoglobin.

e. Blood clotting         : Darah menggumpal.

f. Swallowing              : Menelan.

SEWAGE, SLUDGE AND SCUM

More than 99% of swage is water. Although less than one percent of swage is the organic waste part, that part can be the most offensive. However all sewage should be regarded as dangerous.

Sewage contains all the bacteria and viruses common to be house hold. In the event of the in the family, these germs are also found in the sewage. So it is important for an individual sewage disposal system to work well.

Discharging sewage on the ground surface is a nuisance of odors and the appearance of the surfacing septic effluent. Then too, some disease organisms may be present of the effluents that seep from the poorly working disposal field.

An individual sewage disposal system should be used only where adequate land for the absorption of effluent is available. The subsurface soil characteristic should vapor absorption without the spoiling the groundwater or nearby wells. The usual house hold sewage disposal system consists of the septic tank and an absorption system for the disposal of the septic tank effluent.

The septic tank is the simple holding compartment with a 750 to 1000 gallon capacity. This includes capacity for garbage grinders and automatic washers. Some codes don’t provide for the use of these appliances. In these cases the tank size require would be fifty percent smaller.

Flow through the tank is slow and sluggish, and for long periods no flow may occur. In the tank heavier solid settle. Lighter fats and solid greases rise to the surface and from the party submerged floating scum. The outlet of the tank is designed to prevent passage of the floating scum and settled sludge. Liquid leaving the tank lows from a depth that traps the scum and sludge in the tank. This is usually by a baffle or submerged pipe outlet.

Within the tank, the trapped materials undergo strong forces of purification and decomposition as the result of bacteria found naturally in the sewage. So it is unnecessary to add any compounds or ingredients for this purpose.

Eventually, the tank has to be cleaned to prevent the bypass of sludge or scum that would clog the soil absorption part of the system. Three to five years intervals should be sufficient, but this can only be learned through the particular family’s experience. A new system should be cleaned after about one year and experience will then dictate the proper interval.

LIMBAH, KOTORAN DAN BUIH

Lebih dari 99% limbah adalah air. Walaupun kurang dari satu persen limbah adalah dari bagian barang sisa yang organik, yanitu bagian dapat yang paling dapat menyerang. Bagaimanapun semua limbah harus diwaspadai ketika berbahaya.

Limbah berisi semua bakteri dan virus yang umum untuk rumah tangga. Dalam hal keluarga, kuman ini adalah juga ditemukan/bersumber dari limbah. Maka adalah penting bagi perorangan sistem pengolahan limbah untuk bekerja dengan baik.

Mecat limbah ditempat itu permukaan adalah suatu gangguan bau dan penampilan permukaan anak sungai busuk. Kemudian juga, beberapa penyakit organisma mungkin adalah menyajikan anak sungai yang merembes dengan kurang baik bekerja bidang penjualan.

Perorangan penjualan limbah sistem harus digunakan hanya jika daratan cukup untuk penyerapan anak sungai yang tersedia. Lahan yang di bawah permukaan tanah Karakteristik perlu penyerapan uap air tanpa memanjakan anak itu air tanah atau sumur-sumur dekat. Sistem Penjualan Limbah Rumah tangga yang umum terdiri dari sumur wc dan suatu sistem penyerapan untuk penjualan anak sungai sumur wc.

Sumur wc adalah yang sederhana memegang kompartemen dengan suatu 750 sampai 1000 kapasitas galon. Ini meliputi kapasitas untuk gerinda/tukang asah sampah dan mesin cuci otomatis. Beberapa kode tidak menyediakan penggunaan dari peralatan ini. Di dalam kasus ini ukuran tangki yang diperlukan adalah kurang dari lima puluh pesen.

Alir sepanjang tangki itu adalah melambat dan melempem, dan untuk periode lama tidak boleh terjadi arus. Di dalam tangki yang lebih berat padat mengatasi. Geretan yang gemuk dan lemak padat naik ke permukaan dan dari pihak yang menyelam mengapung buih. Saluran tangki dirancang untuk mencegah jalan lintasan mengapung buih dan mantap kotoran. Cairan yang meninggalkan tangki itu yang rendah dari suatu kedalaman yang menjerat kotoran dan buih di dalam tangki itu. Pada umumnya ini adalah  suatu pelat-buang atau  saluran pipa menyelam.

Di dalam tangki, material yang terjerat mengalami kekuatan pembusukan dan pemurnian yang kuat sebagai hasil bakteri ditemukan secara alami di dalam limbah itu. Maka [itu] adalah tak perlu untuk menambahkan manapun mencampur atau ramuan untuk tujuan ini.

Yang  secepatnya, tangki harus dibersihkan untuk mencegah membypass kotoran atau buih yang akan bakiak penyerapan lahan bagian dari sistem [itu]. Tiga [bagi/kepada] lima tahun interval harus cukup, tetapi ini hanya dapat dipelajari melalui pengalaman keluarga tertentu. Suatu sistem baru harus dibersihkan setelah sekitar satu tahun dan pengalaman akan kemudian mendikte sesuai interval.

CROCODILE

Crocodiles are large reptiles that live in water. Scientifically, covering all species of crocodile Crocodylidae tribal members, including the crocodile fish (Tomistoma schlegelii). However this name can also be worn loosely to refer to ‘crocodile’ alligators, Kaiman and gavial; the crocodile relatives that different tribes.

Crocodiles are generally inhabit freshwater habitats like rivers, lakes, swamps and other wetlands, but there also live in brackish water such as the estuarine crocodile. The main food crocodile is vertebrate animals such as the nation’s fish, reptiles and mammals, sometimes also prey on mollusks and crustaceans depending on the species. Crocodiles are ancient animals, which is only slightly changed due to evolution since the time of dinosaurs.
Outside the ancient form, the crocodile is really a complex reptiles. Unlike the usual reptiles, crocodiles have a heart bears four, midriff (diaphragm) and the cerebral cortex. On the other hand, clearly shows the outer morphology of living aquatic predators. He was a “streamlined” allows it to swim fast. Crocodile folding legs attached to his body back, to reduce water resistance and allow increased speed during swimming. The toes are webbed swimming behind him, which, although not used as a booster when swimming fast, this membrane is very useful when he had to suddenly turn around or make sudden movements in the water, or to start swimming. Webbed feet is also an advantage when crocodiles need to move or walk in shallow water.
Crocodile body size varies widely from species to species, ranging from the dwarf crocodile to giant estuarine crocodiles. Large-bodied species can grow longer than 5 m and has a weight exceeding 1,200 kg. However, only babies alligator measuring about 20 cm when hatched from eggs. Species of crocodile is the largest estuarine crocodiles, which live in the region of Southeast Asia down to northern Australia.
Estuarine crocodiles largest size is still debated. Largest alligator ever recorded was a giant estuarine crocodiles along the 8.6 m, which was shot by a school teacher in Australia. [2] The largest living crocodile is a crocodile along the estuary of 7.1 m in Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, Orissa, of India. In June 2006, his record is recorded in The Guinness Book of World Records.

BUAYA

             Buaya adalah reptilbertubuh besar yang hidup di air. Secara ilmiah, buaya meliputi seluruh spesies anggota suku Crocodylidae, termasuk pula buaya ikan (Tomistoma schlegelii). Meski demikian nama ini dapat pula dikenakan secara longgar untuk menyebut ‘buaya’ aligator, kaiman dan gavial; yakni kerabat-kerabat buaya yang berlainan suku.

Buaya umumnya menghuni habitat perairan tawar seperti sungai, danau, rawa dan lahan basah lainnya, namun ada pula yang hidup di air payau seperti buaya muara. Makanan utama buaya adalah hewan-hewan bertulang belakang seperti bangsa ikan, reptil dan mamalia, kadang-kadang juga memangsa moluska dan krustasea bergantung pada spesiesnya. Buaya merupakan hewan purba, yang hanya sedikit berubah karena evolusi semenjak zaman dinosaurus.

Di luar bentuknya yang purba, buaya sesungguhnya merupakan hewan melata yang kompleks. Tak seperti lazimnya reptil, buaya memiliki jantung beruang empat, sekat rongga badan (diafragma) dan cerebral cortex. Pada sisi lain, morfologi luarnya memperlihatkan dengan jelas cara hidup pemangsa akuatik. Tubuhnya yang “streamline” memungkinkannya untuk berenang cepat. Buaya melipat kakinya ke belakang melekat pada tubuhnya, untuk mengurangi hambatan air dan memungkinkannya menambah kecepatan pada saat berenang. Jari-jari kaki belakangnya berselaput renang, yang meskipun tak digunakan sebagai pendorong ketika berenang cepat, selaput ini amat berguna tatkala ia harus mendadak berbalik atau melakukan gerakan tiba-tiba di air, atau untuk memulai berenang. Kaki berselaput juga merupakan keuntungan manakala buaya perlu bergerak atau berjalan di air dangkal.

Ukuran tubuh buaya sangat bervariasi dari jenis ke jenis, mulai dari buaya kerdil hingga buaya muara raksasa. Spesies bertubuh besar dapat tumbuh lebih panjang dari 5 m dan memiliki berat melebihi 1.200 kg. Walaupun demikian, bayi-bayi buaya hanya berukuran sekitar 20 cm tatkala menetas dari telur. Spesies buaya terbesar adalah buaya muara, yang hidup di wilayah Asia Tenggara hingga ke Australia utara.

Ukuran terbesar buaya muara hingga kini masih diperdebatkan. Buaya terbesar yang pernah tercatat adalah seekor buaya muara raksasa sepanjang 8,6 m, yang tertembak oleh seorang guru sekolah di Australia.[2] Sedangkan buaya terbesar yang masih hidup adalah seekor buaya muara sepanjang 7,1 m di Suaka Margasatwa Bhitarkanika, Orissa, India. Pada bulan Juni 2006, rekornya dicatat pada The Guinness Book of World Records.[9]

LION

            Lion (Sanskrit: Simha) or in scientific name Panthera leo is an animal of the family Felidae or cat breed. The lion is an animal that lives in groups. Usually consists of one male and many females. This group then keep his territory. Lions weight approximately between 150 kg (females) and 225kg (male). Aged between 10 to 15 years in the forest. But if maintained can be up to 20 years.

Lioness is much more active in hunting, while the male lion is more relaxed and always wait and ask for rations from the results of the female game. Male lion believed to be superior and powerful compared to other big cats, but the drawback is that the lion could not climb a tree as good as other big cats.

Growing male lion in thick fur around the neck, it is more advantageous to protect the neck, especially in a free fight between the big cats, which is famous for always pounce neck to immobilize enemies.

Other large cats, such as Cheetah and Leopard has a much smaller body size than the Lions. Lions also have one of the differences with the Tigers, although derived from the same family, lions do not like the water, unlike the tiger who like the water.

Singa

Sanskerta: Siṃha atau dalam nama ilmiahnya Panthera leo adalah seekor hewan dari keluarga felidae atau jenis kucing. Singa merupakan hewan yang hidup dalam kelompok. Biasanya terdiri dari seekor jantan dan banyak betina. Kelompok ini lantas menjaga daerah kekuasaannya. Berat Singa kurang lebih antara 150 kg (betina) dan 225kg (jantan). Umurnya antara 10 sampai 15 tahun di hutan. Tetapi jika dipelihara bisa sampai 20 tahun.

Singa betina jauh lebih aktif dalam berburu, sedangkan Singa jantan lebih santai dan selalu bersikap menunggu dan meminta jatah dari hasil buruan para betinanya.Singa jantan dipercaya lebih unggul dan perkasa dibandingkan dengan kucing-kucing besar lainnya,tetapi kelemahan singa ialah tidak bisa memanjat pohon sebagus kucing-kucing besar lainnya.

Singa jantan di tumbuhi bulu tebal disekitar tengkuknya, hal ini lebih menguntungkan untuk melindungi tengkuknya, terutama dalam perkelahian bebas antara kucing besar, yang terkenal dengan selalu menerkam tengkuk untuk melumpuhkan musuhnya.

Kucing besar lainnya, seperti Cheetah dan Macan Tutul memiliki ukuran tubuh jauh lebih kecil dibanding Singa.Singa juga punya salah satu perbedaan dengan Harimau,walaupun berasal dari keluarga yang sama, Singa tidak suka dengan air, berbeda dengan harimau yang suka dengan air.

PART ONE

ENGLISH STRUCTURE

Task 1

{ A } HN

  1. Handsome  young man
  2. Small red ant
  3. Smart young boy
  4. White long snake
  5. Beautiful white flower

Task 2

{ Adv } A* HN

  1. Really big green water melon
  2. A very old black car
  3. Poisonely green long snake
  4. Highly big white building
  5. Very tall green tree
  6. Really clean large room
  7. Very small brown mouse

Task 3

{ num } { Adv } A*HN

  1. Two very small soft animal
  2. Many very large green plant
  3. Three highly tall big building

Task 4

{ Det } { Num } { Adv } A*HN

  1. These two really small black ant
  2. This one veryfast white car
  3. That one very beautiful white rose
  4. These three really dangerous brown lion
  5. The poisonely big black scorpion
  6. The extremely dangerous high temperature
  7. This one very old black train
  8. The highly big great building

Task 5

{ Det } { num } { adv } A* { N } { HN }

  1. This one very hitch silver atm engine
    1. These two really dirty big rubbish truck
    2. That one very cold small ice cream box
  2. Those a lot very beautiful white sands beach

Task 6

{ Det } { num } { adv } A* { N } HN { Adj}

  1. This one very great small mobile phone on the shelf
  2. These two really good black hair dryer on the table

Task 7

Underline the verb group in the following sentences and name the parts as in the above axample. i.e. the MAIN VERB and the AUXILIARY verb. The first example has been done for you.

  1. The tunnel was closed 80 years ago.

Was ® Auxiliary

Closed ® Main Verb

  1. Paper is made from wood

is®Auxiliary

Made®Main Verb

  1. In many countries, the invironment is threatened by pollution

Is®Auxiliary

threatened®Main Verb

  1. Sunlight is reflected by white surfaces.

is®Auxiliary

reflected®Main verb

  1. Many car engines are coold by water.

are®Auxiliary

coold®Main verb

  1. The oxygen balance in the atmosphere is maintained by photosynthesis.

is®Auxiliary

Maintaned®Main verb

Task 8

Underline the VERB GROUP in the following example and name the parts in same  way as the above examples.

  1. The area of a circle can be calculated using geometry.

Can®modals

Be®Auxiliary

Calculated®Main verb

  1. Concrete should contain at least 12% cement.

Should®Auxiliary

Countain®Main verb

  1. The impurities in the water are eliminated by a filter.

Are®Auxiliary

Eliminated®Main verb

  1. Fresh water can be distilled from sea water.

Can® modals                                           Be® Auxilary

Distilled® Main Verb

  1. Modern aero planes are powered by jet engines.

Are ® Auxiliary

Powered ® Main Verb

  1. All books should be returned to the library by Friday.

Should ® modals                                                 Be ® Auiliary

Returned ® Main Verb

  1. Distilled water does not corrode iron.

distilled ® Main Verb                              water ® head noun

does ® Auxiliary                                      not ® negatives

  1. Objects of different weights can be separated by a centrifuge.

Can ® modals                                          Be ® Auxialiary

Separated ® Main Verb

Task 9

Using the sentences above as examples, underline and identify the farts of the VRB GROUPS in the following sentences.

  1. The fumes of nitric acid should not be breathed.

Should ® modals                                                 be ® Auxiliary

Not ® negatives                                       breathed ® Main Verb

  1. Agriculture could not have been coused by leak.

Could ® modals                                       have been ® Auxiliary

Not ® negatives                                       coused ® Main Verb

  1. The ship has not been raised from the sea floor.

Has ® Auxiliary                                       been ® Auxiliary

Not ® negatives                                       raised ® Main Verb

  1. Expensive spraying programs are not required.

Are ® Auxiliary                                       required ® Main Verb

Not ® negative

  1. Malaria cannot be eradicated in rural areas.

Can ® modals                                          be ® Auxiliary

Not ® negatives                                       eradicated ® Main Verb

  1. An asteroid could not have killed the dinosaurus.

Could ® modals                                       have ® Auxiliary

Not ® negatives                                       killed ® Main Verb

Task 10

Underline VERB GROUP in the following sentences. Then identify and name the parts of VERB GROUP, as in the above examples.

  1. Wood is usually cut with a saw.

Is ® Auxiliary

Usually ® Adverb + frequency

  1. Oven temperatures are usually controlled by a thermostat.

Are ® Auxiliary                                       Usually ® Adverb + frequency

Controlled ®  Main Verb

  1. Dangerous experiments should always be conducted under strict supervision.

Should ® modals                                     Always ® Adverb + frequency

Be ® Auxiliary                                         Conducted ® Main Verb

  1. Difficult mathematical problems can almost  always be solved using computers.

Can ® modals                                          Almost always ® Adverb + frequency

Be ® Auxiliary                                         Solved ® Main Verb

  1. The hole in the ozone layer  will always have to be  monitored.

Will ® modals                                          Always ® Adverb + frequency

Have to be ® Auxiliary                            Monitored ® Main Verb

  1. A long thesis would not usually have been completed in such a short time.

Would ® modals                                      Not ® negatives

Usually ®Adverb + frequency                Have been ® Auxiliary

Complicated ® Main Verb

Task 11

Underline the VERB GROUPS in the following sentences. Then identify and name the parts of the VERB GROUP.

  1. 34% of solar radiation is directly reflected back into space.

Directly ® Adv.                                 Reflected ® Main Verb

  1. Long infared waves are readily absorbed by atmospheric.

Readily ® Adv.                                 Absorbed ® Main Verb.

  1. The atmospheric temperatures of some region are profoundly influenced by winds and ocean currents.

Profoundly ® Adv                             influenced ® Main Verb.

  1. The difference between analog and digital data is not always clearly understood.

Always ® Adverb + frequency         clearly ® Adv.

Understood ® Main Verb

  1. A nuclear chain reaction takes place very rapidly.

Reaction ® Main Verb                       very rapidly ® Adv.

  1. Molecules in a fluid do not conduct heat very well.

Conduct ® Main Verb                       very well ® Adv.

PART TWO

READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY

ENRICHNESS

 

  1. THE MOVE PROCESS OF AN AMOEBA

Firstly, when amoeba move the ectoplasm become liquid at a certain point the animal start to put the pseudopodium.Secondly, the stream of endoplasm move up the centerof the animal into pseudopodium.

Thirtly, it spread out and become firmer and then to the ectoplasm at the sides. And finally, at the rear and the opposite happens so that the whole animal moves towards the pseudopodium.

I find the new words :

  • Firmer        : lebih kokoh / kuat
  • Aqueezes   : tekanan
  • Rear           : bagian belakang
  • Toward      : kearah
  • Spread       : penyebaran
  • Stream       : aliran
  1. SNAKE MOVEMENT

Firstly, for side-winding, snake move in a seriesof steps.

Secondly, on rough grounds most snakes mone by passing waves se muscle movement down their bodies. Then the wave push against stones and other object.

On some other ground, snakes may move in aconcertina fashion.

Thirtly, snake draws its body up into a series of bends. After than, the snake keeping its tail region firmly on the ground. Finally, it the throws its head and body forward.

I find the new words :

  • Concertina       : semacam akordion
  • Bends              : berliku
  • Leap                : lompatan
  • Sideways         : menyimpang/membujur
  • Rough             : kasar.
  1. HOW DO BATS FIND THEIR WAY IN THE DARK ?

Some bats like the long eared bat, produce sound from their mounth and other species like the greather horseshoe bat, produce there sound from their noses. Firstly, the bats receive information about the direction, loudness and pitch (high or low notes) of echoes returning from flaying insect with their amazing accuracy.

I find the new words :

  • Echoes             : gema
  • Accuracy         : ketelitian
  • Loudness         :sedikit keras
  • Reflected        : menggambarkan
  • Pitched                        : puncak
  1. THE PROCESS METAMORPHOSIS OF BUTTERFLY

Firstly, start from eggs and then from eggs to be catterpillar which happened change of form, from circle to oval. A caterpillar life is spent feeding and growing.

, the caterpillar grow to be pupa or chrysalis and after than to be adult emerging.

Finally, adult emerging change of from to be the beautiful butterfly.

I find new words:

  • Chrysalis         : kepompong
  • Shades             : ganti kulit
  • Silk theards       :benang sutra
  1. HOW DOES A CAMEL CONSERVE WATER ?

If  the camel drinking water, the water there save in the which located in its hump. The camel not sweat and urine very much. The camel’s humph contains fat which can change become energy and to be of water. So, that can adapted with situation of desert.

I find new words :

  • Hump                : punggung
  • Harm                 : kerugian
  • Scraggy             : kering
  • Survive                         : hidup lebih lama.
  1. HOW DOES BEES MAKE HONEY?

Firstly, the bees perch on the flower to stuck up the nectar and pollen for food. They uses its long proboscis to stuck up the nectar it taken into bees honey stomach and gather pollen which is scrapes into to pollen baskets on its back legs.

Secondly, the both werw brought back to the nest and stored in cells.

Finally, the bees  throw their saliva that is honey. So, the honey is not gathered from flower  but there action of bees saliva.

I find new words :

  • Converted         : mengubah
  • Gather               : mengumpulkan
  • Saliva                : air ludah
  • Storing              : menyimpan
  • Wax                  : lilin
  • Proboscis          : belalai
  • Suck                  : menghisap
  • Scrapes                         : mengeruk

INTRODUCTION

THE ENGLISH SENTENCES

English has a very large vocabulary – the largest of any language. This is partly because there are many words we can use for exactly the same thing. In many cases, there is a word which comes to us from old English, a word from Latin/greek and a word French.

Examples :

Rise                             mount                                      ascend

Ask                              question                                   interrogate

Time                            age                                           epoch

As mentioned above, old English was used by the common people and Latin and French were used in education and government. Nowadays, old English has become spoken English and the Latin/French influences can be seen in written English, specially scientific and technical English. This is way spoken English we say “go in”, but in the technical writing we would say “enter”.

Other example are:

Spoken English                                   Written English

Go out                                                 exit

Go up                                                  ascend

Go down                                             descend

Go across                                            traverse

As you can see, the verbs (kata kerja)in the left column are all irregular verbs and the verbs in the right column are all regular verbs. This difference between spoken and written English is also true for words other than nouns (kata benda). For example we use the word “big” in speaking but “large” in writing. The same in true for “little” (spoken) and “small” (written) . So, you will see in English there are two languages in the one language – one for speaking and for writing. It’s very important to remember this difference when you are learning English.   It sounds very strange if we speak in written in English or we write in spoken English.

 

MATERIAL OF ENGLISH SUBJECT

LESSON 1

Standard of competency :

  • After studying this lesson student will be able to analyze part of English sentence and contruct their own sentences based on examples.

Basic competencies :

  1. Identify function of each optional elements in subject of English sentences
  2. Construct student own sentence based on examples
  3.  Write students own sentences based on specific formula
  4. Distinguish the function of optional element of subject.

THE SUBJECT

In English, the order of the parts of a sentences is very important. in the text chapter, we will look at language to talk about parts of a sentences. This very important and will help you begin to write more complicated sentences.

In spoken English, the noun parts of a sentences are often simple and verb parts are complicated. In written English, especially in scientific / technical English, the verbs parts are often simple and the noun parts complicated. All sentences in English must contain at least one verb. The simplest sentence in English has a subject and a verb. The subject normally comes before the verb.

Examples :

  1. The boy cried (the boy is the subject, cried is the verb)
  2. The ship sank (the ship is the subject, sank is the verb)

In English, a piece of language with a SUBJECT and a VERB is called a CLAUSE. in the example above, the sentences have only one  clause. Other sentences may have two or more clauses.

The subject (noun group) in an English sentence can be very simple or very complicate. The subject of sentences is the “doer” of an action and so must be person oh thing. To “doer” is therefore a pronoun, a noun, or a group of words based on a noun . In this chapter we will look at each of these types of noun group as subject. That is, we will look at the noun group as:

  1. A pronoun
  2. A single noun
  3. A group of words based on a noun

TYPE 1. PRONOUN AS NOUN GROUP/SUBJECT

As mention above, the subject in a English sentence can be very complicated or very simple. Perhaps the simplest kind of subject is the one where the noun groups consist of a pronoun such as → I, He, She, You, We, They, It, etc.

  • I waited
  • She went home
  • He conducted the experiment
  • You are lazy boy
  • We tried the taste
  • They came late.

Sentences like these, with PRONOUN as SUBJECT are rare in scientific English. This is because scientific writing is not concerned with people but rather it is concerned with things, facts, events, etc. it is more usual in scientific English to use the two types of subject which will be explained below.

TYPE 2. SINGLE NOUN AS SUBJECT/NOUN GROUP

In this type of subject/noun group, the only compulsory element is a noun. Therefore, the noun group may consist of a single noun.

In the following examples, the subject is underline and the head noun is indicated. Note that the head noun (HN) is the only element in the noun group. Example:

  1. Sound travels at 333 m/sec (Sound is HN)
  2. Water solidifies at zero degrees celcius (Water is HN)

TYPE 3. GROUP OF WORDS AS SUBJECT/NOUN GROUP

The noun group may also consist of a group of words. In such a group there is always a main oh head noun as well as other word, such as numbers, adjectives, adverbs, etc. the extra words in the noun group give extra information about the noun. In simple noun groups, the extra information is placed before the head noun. In the following examples the subject is underlined.

Examples:

1)      The reactor exploded → RECTOR is the head noun (HN)

2)      The bridge collapsed→ BRIDGE is the head noun (HN)

3)      The heavy rain caused the floods in Lombok → RAIN is the head noun (HN)

From the above examples, it is clear that our formula for the NOUN GROUP → HN is complete, because in example (1) and (2) above there are two elements in each SUBJECT and in example (3) there are three elements. Therefore we will have two refine our formula to include the other optional elements which can occur in a noun group. In the rest of this lesson, we will look more closely at the optional elements of the noun group.

OPTIONAL ELEMENT 1 → ADJECTIVE (A)

Adjectives give more information about the HN. They are always placed before the HN.

Examples:

  1. Soft woods are cheaper than hard woods (soft is an adjective and woods is the HN)
  2. Black surfaces do not reflect light well.

Our formula for the noun group now becomes:

{A} HN → where the brackets { } indicate that the element is not compulsory, i.e. optional. {A} is an optional element ADJECTIVE, and HN is the compulsory element HEAD NOUN. Often, however we use more than the adjective in the noun group.

To account for using more than one adjective, we must change our formula to:

{A}* HN→ where {A} is the optional element (Adjective), and the * indicates that the element adjective may occur more than once.

Note : some sentences may containing more than one adjective.

OPTIONAL ELEMENT 2 → ADVERB (Adv.)

Adjectives in the noun group can be modified by adverbs give us more information about adjectives E.g.

An Extremely beautiful young women  (an extremely is Adv, beautiful and young is A, women is HN).

An adverb modifies only the adjective immediately after it. Each adjective in the noun group can have one adverbs, or stand alone. E.g.

An extremely expensive very large light blue house

Adv.                   A         Adv     A     Adv    A      HN

Note: an adverb in the noun group cannot stand alone. It must attached to Adjective. To account for these adverb and adjective combinations, we  must ance again after our formula fpr the noun group to :

{{Adv} A}* HN

OPTIONAL ELEMENT 3→ NUMBERS (NUM)

Numbers and other expressions of quantity such as : many, much, a lot of, are placed before the ADVERB/ADJECTIVE element in the noun group. E.g.

Two very electric train

Two → Num                  Very → Adv

Fast electric→ A                        Train → HN

Since the number element is also optional, the formula for the noun group becomes:

{Num} {{Adv} A}* HN

OPTIONAL ELEMENT 4→ DETERMINERS (Det)

Determiner consist of two types :

  1. The demonstrative pronouns → this and that, and their plurals, these and those
  2. The definite article, the, and its plurals, the

Examples:

  1. Those two very intelligent students
  2. The highly dangerous volatile solutions.

Our formula thus becomes:

{Det} {Num} {{Adv} A}* HN

A and its plurals  some can also be regarded as det but cannot be used with num.

 

OPTIONAL ELEMENT 5→ NOUN (N)

Another way of including more information In the Noun Group is by using.

A NOUN + NOUN ( N + N ) combination

In these cases, there is still only one head noun. These combination occur very frequently in scientific English. Example:

River water                 = the water in rivers ( Rivers is N, water is HN )

A petrol engine           = an engine which uses petrol ( Petrol is N, engine is HN )

The formula for the noun group, thus becomes:

{Det} {Num} {{ Adv} A }* {N} HN

OPTIONAL ELEMENT 6 ® ADJUNCT (Adj)

Adding information after the HEAD NOUN is yet another way of packing more information into the noun group. We often use “of” or some other PREPOITION in these cases. (the subjects are underlined). Example:

  1. The volume of a gas varies with its pressure

HN—Adj—-

In this example, “volume” is the head noun and “of a gas” is extra information placed after the head noun.

  1. A micture of Nitric Acid and Hydrocholoric Acid dissolved gold

HN———————-Adj————————-

The element Adj, as mentioned above is optional but can occur more than once in the noun group.

Example ® the books in the cupboard on the top self…..

Det Hn ——–Adj 1——-  ———Adj 2———-

In our formula, we will represent this as : {Adj}* and our formula then becomes:

Det} {Num} {{ Adv} A }* {N} HN {Adj}

FINAL WORD ON NOUN GROUPS

Using formula we have developed above, we can generate both very simple and very complex noun groups. Look at the example below:

 

{Det} {Num} {{ Adv} A }* {N} HN {Adj}

{Det}               {Num}                        {Adv}             {A}*               {N}                 HN                  {Adj} Verb    

Those                   2                  extremely        dangerous        water             samples             in those are

Bottles

Highly             corrosive                                                          on the shelf

Viscous                                                           on the left

Green                                                              on the top

The minimal noun group that can be generated from the above table is: samples ARE…. Since HN is the only compulsory element. On other hand, the maximal noun group that can be generated is:

Those 2 extremely dangerous, highly corrosive, viscous, green water samples in those bottles on the shel on the left at the top ARE……

Fortunately, extremely long noun groups are rare. However, they do occur. You should try to get used to them, especially in reading and writing. The ability to recognize the head noun in the noun group is very important. This is because, if the head noun is singular, then the verb must be singular. And the head noun is plural. Than the verb must be plural. The verb must agree with the head noun. Look carefully at the following examples:

The teacher  of the student IS……

The teacher of the students IS…..

The teachers of the student ARE….

The teachers of the students ARE….

Whether we use “IS” or “ARE” is determined by the HEAD NOUN. It is not determined by the noun closest to the verb, i.e ® student /s in the examples above.

LESSON 2

Standard of competency:

  • After studying this lesson student will be able to analyze part of English sentenceand construct their own sentences based on examples.

Basic competencies:

  1. Identify function of each optional elements in subject of English sentences.
  2. Construct student own sentences based on examples.
  3. Write students own sentences based on specific formula.
  4. Distinguish the function of optional element of subject.

THE VERB

As mentioned at the beginning of lesson 1, the SUBJECT or NOUN GROUP (NG) is one of the compulsory elements in a clouse – the other one is the VERB GROUP (VG). The VERB GROUP in English is often very complicated. This is because in contains a lot of information, i. e. information about tense, etc. for this reason, a large part of many English courses is concerned with verbs. Similarly, in our course, we will spend a lot of time looking at the VERB GROUP.

THE VERB “BE” AND” HAVE”

The verb “be” and “have” are so important in scientific and technical English that we will devote a separate ahapther to each of these verbs.

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERB

Oteher verbs in English fall into two catehories, i.e. TRANSITIVE and INTRANSITIVE.

TRANSITIVE VERBS are those verbs which can take an OBJECT.

INTRANSITIVE VERBS are those verbs which cannot take an OBJECT.

Sometimes the difference between TRANSITIVE and INTRANSITIVE verbs is very clear. Some verbs, for example, can be used only TRANSITIVELY and other verbs can be used only INTRANSITIVELY. Examples:

  • Raise the scientifist raised the temperature of the solution.
  • Rise the temperature of the solution rose.

The verbs “raise” must take an OBJECT (i.e. it is always TRANSITIVE), where as the verbs “rise” cannot take an OBJECT (i.e. it is always INTRANSITIVE). Many verbs can be either TRANSITIVE or INTRANSITIVE, they may be TRANSITIVE in one sentence and INTRANSITIVE in another. Examples:

  1. He studies hard……………………………INTRANS
  2. He studies every night…………………….INTRANS
  3. He studies his lecture notes carefully……..TRANS

This distinction between TRANSITIVE and INTRANSITIVE verbs is very important because only TRANSITIVE verbs can become PASSIVE.

THIS IS THE STRUCTRUSE OF THE VERB GROUP

A VERB GROUP consist of a least a MAN VERB – this is the only compulsory element. Apart from the MAIN VERB, there may be a number of optional elements – we will look at these later in the following pages. By adding these optional elements, we can include more information in the VERB GROUP. In the following sentences, the VERB GROUP consist of only a MAIN VERB. (in the example, the MAIN VERB is underlined).

  1. This bottle contains Nitric acid. “contains” is the MAIN VERB.
  2. Sea water corrodes iron. “Corrodes” is the MAIN VERB.

In scientific and technical English, it is very common that the VERB GROUP consist only of a MAIN VERB. However, the VERB GROUP also frequently contains a number of optional elements.

OPTIONAL ELEMENT IN THE VERB GROUP

  1. AUXILIARIES (Aux)

Auxiliaries are parts of the following verbs:

“to be”               am, is, was, were, be been, being.

“to have”           has, have, had.

“to do”              does, do, did.

The function of AUXILIARIES is to indicate both TENSE (present, past, future, ect.) and VOICE (active, passive). To indicate TENSE and VOICE, the AUXILIARIES are used in varios combinations before the MAIN VERB. The verbs “to be”, and “to have” can also be the MAIN VERB in clause. They have roles besides being AUXILIARIES.

  1. MODALS (Mod)

MODALS are added to VERB GROUP to add extra information to the VERB GROUP. At this stage in the course, we only want you to identify MODALS. We well look at the meaning of these. MODALS at a later time. There are three groups of MODALS in scientific English:

GROUP 1 ® can, may, might, could.

The MODALS are used to express ability and probability.

GROUP 2 ®will

In scientific English, “will” is used for making predictions are made when we are not fully certain but are fairly certain that something will happen

GROUP 3 ® should, must, have to

These modal are used to give warnings, introduction or advice.

  1. NEGATIVES (Neg)

In NEGATIVE sentences, the word “not” is added to the first MODAL or the first AUXILIARY.

  1. ADVERBS

SELF EVALUATION

After followed the course of English during one semester started on September 2011 and finished on December 2011, I got more knowledge and new experience that would be valuable lesson for me. Learning English at Biology Education can improve my ability to understand Biology-English article and translate this article into Indonesian well.

Since followed this course, my English vocabulary is improved by reading the articles and translate it into Indonesian. Automatically, I opened the dictionary to found the meaning of new difficull word. From learning these articles also I could learn how to understand and how to catch the point contained in a passage. It is obtained by answered the questions about the passage or article.

Beside I got the ability to translate and to understand the articles, I also able a little bit to make sentences or short paragraph in English . Although I didn’t make it well, but I always try to make a short paragraph. It is developed by making course journal of what each course bring. The activity of course in every week must be written in a a short paragraph.

After learn to understand articles, translate the articles, and make a short paragraph, I also learn spoken English. I must make a short presentation of one summary scientific journal. Beside all what I’ve evaluation above, I also got lesson about ethics, how the true way to asked dispensation.

My expectation for the next, I can be better than I’ve done during this time.

ENGLISH JOURNAL

 

Self Reflective Journal

                                                         1 and 2 st Meeting

 

Tuesday, 6th September 2011                            

In the early meeting, indirect teacher give lesson. But introduce of self. And at the moment, my teacher the storying a elittle jouney of his life, especially ladder education him. I am very  marvel at he. That moment is I think, what I can like that? And than after wards, he give fotocofy to us all about lesson one semester. Besides he also explaining to that lec turing method. As for contract of yarus signed, which where, whit that signature meaning us agree to execute lecturing for next week. For first meeting only that its activity.

The second meeting, lesson of lecturing start to be submitted. Before submitting lesson, teacher start to read content of that contract. First content is we are in errand to make journal. Hitting, how our comments at lecturing, first week. That journal will in collecting next week. And than start at for warding of first lesson of lecturing that is introduction. That moment there is one of  us to read off first paragraph from a lesson found on that fotocofi. I also get innings to read a example of that lesson. That is, time-age-epoch. As for orther duty, that is irrand to make group of words as subject/noun group. Which is have pettern to. Adjective+adjective+head noun related to biological sciench. And will be collected by next week with that journal.Self Reflective Journal

3rd Meeting

 

Tuesday, September 20th 2011

The third meeting, studying about is various kind of formula for group of words. I am feeling lesson of lecturing in this time not is difficult and very happy of stuying it. The teacher, ordering one by one from us for reading and giving example formula for the group of words, adjective + adjective + HN which have assigning week yesterday. I am very want and I hoping so that in arrand for reading example formula for the group of words  like all my friends, because I am very understand with the topic lesson of that moment. All student is very motivated and enthusiastic of that moment. According to me all student very understand at the third meeting that moment there is four formula for the group of words which we study. That is meeting very pleasant, difference with yesterday because week yesterday I am not understand. Self Reflective Journal

 

5th meeting

 

Friday, October 7th 2011 In the early meeting to five, one of my friend in errand to narrative activity of us on thursday by using English and my friend to say “ we studying belajar dan pembelajaran “  but  my teacher to say “ if past eccurence, have to use past tenses that is we have studied belajar dan pembelajaran. In the meeting te five that, we have studied six formula in the noun groups. But there is one of my friend enquiring and my friend to say “ what the function we studying this word groups ? “ the teacher answer “ the function is at the time when you make paragraph, duty, and onther. And all of you understand if studying the next topic.

At the meeting the lecturer told me his experience during in Australia. It also make me so interested to studied hard. The lecturer said to us,”study at the foreign was so easy.. you only need still in the English like speeking and writing..”

Any event which make the lecturer and us though that it not good in the studied. Malika, once my friend maybe have forgot switch off her handphone. So if  the lecturer have explaned us about the subject, her handphone was ring.But over all the last meeting make me got more inspiration especially from the lecturer.

SELF REFLECTIVE JOURNAL

6rd Meeting

 

Friday, October 14th 2011

The early meeting to six, the teacher order us to reading words which is have factor tree pettern to which assigned by at meeting to five yesterday. Some from my friend reading to words, but there is one of the my friend which feel nervous, so that in the word forest he mention letter L. And than after reading that words we studied new topic that is the verb which among studied about optional e;ements in the verb group. In this topic I is ordered reading off one paragraph that is about auxialiaries.

And this my first time to order for to read a paragraph by teacher at this lesson. Although my first time, I do not feel nervous or tremble because I have a little a adapting whit my friends and my teacher. In that meeting all student very enthusiastic its motivation very high studied this topic.

SELF REFLECTIVE JOURNAL

7th Meeting

Friday, 04th of November 2011

On Friday 4th November 2011. We were begun to study lesson 3 of part 2. We begun to activity reading comprehension and vocabulary enrichness. Mr. Wahab commanded us to identify main sentence in paragraph, answer the question according to task 12, identify Head Noun and Main Verb in paragraph, and find new word that we don’t know the maining. First, Mr. wahab had an idea to do TPS ,that we must to do metods TPS(think,pair,and share). We discussed the paragraph with our friend beside us. Each group consist of 2 or 3 member. Ulfa desi is my group. We discussed the paragraph which has themes The planarians.

We begun to read identify paragraph one. We identify the main sentence. According to ulfa desi nawansari and I decided that the main verb of the first paragraph is free-living flatworms are grouped in the class turberallia. Mr. Wahab asked Annafianissa to decided the main sentence. Our answer were same. Then Mr.Wahab help us to understand what word that we didn’t know. After t Mr. wahab asked Dana to conclude the first paragraph with Indonesian.

After that we were going to the second paragraph. But before it Ifti and Jumatun answer the question number one that is In which class are the planarians grouped ? and the answer is Turbellaria.

The main sentence  of the second paragraph is a planarian has a simple digestive system. The new word word for me are extended ,and a branched sac. Extended mean “diulurkan” and a branched sac mean “ kantung bercabang”. Sac is the head noun and Branched is noun. so that is the noun group.

Self Evaluations

I didn’t  know many words in this lesson. I still confused these noun group, these are “ a few ” in paragraph one and line six. What the maining of these noun group? As we know  “ a “ is determiners also can be number, few is number which more than one. Is not just few? And why used a few?.

 

SELF REFLECTIVE JOURNAL

8nd Meeting

Tuesday, 4rd  November 2011

At the last meeting, any something which different class at the time. Why? Because for the first time in the English class if any students came late, the lecturer closed the door and didn’t allowed them to joint with us in the class. And why I said it the first time? Because, sometime ago at the same meeting the lecturer never did it.

Before open the study, the lecturer devide us became some club,one club include 2-3 students. It method so fun for me, because it make us take easy in the studied. It the first time we discuss about text, that is about planarian.

The lecturer asksed one by one of the club.  My  partner in the club  and I became the second club whom lecturer ask. Fortunatlly  my club got simple question from the lecturer. Altought I understood the text enough. I felt good to discuss the text with my partner or all of people in the class. I felt confidence to spoke up if the lecturer asked to us, it cause I could understood the text with easy.

But any massage from the lecturer which make me awake. The lecturer said that rule which the students of  high school aplication more good than us. Because we couldn’t arranged the sit method like if we high school. Not only me but all of my friends also did like me. May be they also though as me though.

Thanks a lot sir, you remembred us..!!

SELF REFLECTIVE JOURNAL

9nd Meeting

Friday ,November 13th 2011

Today’s course is about the life of animal. More specifically, its about how does an amoeba move, how do snake move, how do bats find their way in the dark, how does a caterpillar turn into butterfly, how does camel conserve the water, how do bees make a honey. Luckily, we shouldn’t translate all of that article on our own. The lecturer divide us into a group, when each group had their own text. My groupmate is Iin amelia, we were translate the text about how do bees make a honey.

The lecturer want us to tell by our own word the steps of how do bees make a honey. We had tell it systematically, like using firstly, secondly, after that, and finally. After we do that, then each of the group had to presentated their own work in the front of the class. Then let another student to comment their presentation, whether its about asking or giving an advice. After all the groups had presented their text, then we closed the class together.

Self Evaluation
From todays lesson, I learn that the most important thing of being a student of biology is I have to think systematically. Like when I make a process of something, I have to use words like firstly, secondly, after that, then, and finally.

Self Reflective Journal

10st Meeting

 

Friday, November 18th 2011

Todays lesson is about lesson 11, it’s the text of Sewage, Sludge, and Scum. In here we had to translate the text and answer the task after that. The text is quite easy to understand but still had some new words for us. This text are really usefull, since we mostly heard many problems within it. Actually, this time the lecturer didn’t lead us for every sentence to translate them. We had to do it on our own. And after that, we answer the question of the text. So, in here we answer it together and the lecturer also translate some sentence for us. But for number 6 to 10, it seems the answer are pretty difficult. But luckily, we were able to answer it all. Finally, the time’s up and we end the class together.

Self Evaluation
Well, actually I’m not fit for today’s lesson. So I do the task quite reckless, and the bad things about it, is mr.Wahab  look at my task. He then asked me from which sentence I got the answer and I just answer it spontanity without thinking too well. So in the end, I’m the one whose at a wrong side. What a bad day I think. Not just that, mr.wahab then say a word that catch my attention’s the most. It is “if you only good at speaking, but you ain’t good at reading . You will end by being a tourist guide” oh gosh! Those words really-really stab my heart. And then from these day I learn that I shouldn’t ignore my reading skill.

Self Reflective Journal

11st Meeting

Friday, November 25th 2011

Todays lesson is not same like the previous meets. Today we study english at 2 PM of Friday. Exactly it was after jumatan. The reason for that is, the new lecturer mr.Imam can’t teach us in the morning due to he had another  subject to teach for the 3rd semester student. So we change the time but same the day. The object that we’re study about is out of a content of student hand book. Mr.Imam gave us another article. It was about Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution. In here, he asked us to try translating the text. But it seems not many of us may be able to understand it well. Unfortunately, we weren’t able to finish the text at all. Its just until the first pharagraph. Because, there are pretty new and difficult words. Not just that, mr.imam also gave me something new. That the word “ness” in word like selfishness mean “ke” in Bahasa. We also discuss about the word dislikes and word dissolve. Even though those two words using the word dis-. It doesn’t mean it had the same function. I mean the word dis- in dislikes describe the opposite word of likes. While dis- in dissolve doesn’t mean the opposite of solve. So the point is, the adding word of dis- depends of the word using after that. It also mean that dis- not always refer to un-.

Self Evaluation
now I know the using of dis-. It doesn’t mean to what I ever thought before. All the thanks I give to mr.imam for this case. Not just that, he also teach me about the using of –ness, i.e selfishness. The adding word of ness here mean in bahasa is “ke-egoisan”.

Self Reflective Journal

12st Meeting

 

Tuesday, November 29th 2011

Todays lesson is we were continue the previous text that had been given. Now we continue it to the second pharagraph and try to translate it. Like the previous meet before, mr.Imam asked a student to translate it and speak up their translation. So we did listen to every translation. If we had heard some translation were wrong. We fixed it together, so the wrong one could be lead to the right one. Actually todays lesson was probably same like the previous meet. All we did just translate every single sentence of the text. So in the end, we only could translate it until the third pharagraph. After that, we close the class together.

Self Evaluation
from todays lesson I learn that in order to improve our vocabularies. One of the most effective ways is by reading. Even though its just a short text. Just read it and try to translate it.

Self Reflective Journal

13 st Meeting

Tuesday, December 6 th 2011

The object we study today is same like the meet before. All we have to do here is just translate and translate every single word, sentence, pharagraph. I kind of feel bored, cause a couple days before is translating the same text. It seems like not only me who feel bored, I could tell by the word how’s my other friends feel. I can see it from their face. What a a funny face if I think about it back then. Okay, Back to the topic, the way of translation today seems little different from before. Here, we had to write our translation in the whiteboard while mr.imam only gave us a short time to translate it by ourself. The name whose being called is random. It depend on the absent . some of my friends got their own nerves and I can see it clearly from their expression. And then, something surprise me a lot. I was being called and had to translate quite-long sentence. Oh gosh! I’m not noticed it before. So I asked mr.imam to gave me a time to think about it first. Thanks to god, the words of the sentence not really difficult to translate. So I do it well, and mr.imam agree with my translation. Finally, we finished the whole text and coincidence, the time’s up too. So we end the together.

Self Evaluation
well, actually its not as bored as I think. I learn that it would be better if we translate a text together. Cause we can fix our translation together, while our translation were not 100% right.

Self Reflective Journal

14 st Meeting

 

Tuesday, December, 13th 2011

Today’s lesson is about lesson 10. It was the humans body. This text mainly tell us about how the organs of our body’s work. The text are how do you digest food, how do you hear, how do your kidneys work, how does your heart work, and how does a baby develop. Luckily, mr. Imam lead us a way to translate them. He just pointed the students or asked for a volunteer to translate them. He did never angry or disappointed whenever we translate it wrong. Cause he always said “english is a mistake” what a kind and wise words they are. Back to the topic, actually we just waste the time by translate every of them. From word to word, sentence to sentence, pharagraph to paragraph. And finally, we didn’t realize that the time is up. So we end the class together.

Self Evaluation
through today’s lesson, I learn a little things about biology. Especially in english of course. I guess, if the lecturer kept giving us such a kind of article like this, we will be prepared more as the student of PGBI.

Self Reflective Journal

15 st Meeting

 

Tuesday, December 20 th 2011

Our english course today is about translating the text of lesson 12 in hand book. It definitely about  Small but Mighty. Overall, this text mainly tell us about wood decay, the cause of wood decay,how to prevent the wood decay, and where’s mostly the wood decay occur, I mean the place, region, and so on. The method of todays translation is same like the previos 2 meet before. It was speak up our translation. We also find some new words that even mr.Imam are still wondering about. It were “Mold”,  and “Sapwood”. Not only that, we also found some words that unappropiate written. Also we erase some words which is shouldn’t be. Finally, after we translate the whole text. We end the class together.

Self Evaluation
I learn something new about how to prevent wood decay. It was quite valuable knowledge I guess.

FORMULA

Task 1

{ A } HN

  1. Handsome  young man
  2. Small red ant
  3. Smart young boy
  4. White long snake
  5. Beautiful white flower

Task 2

{ Adv } A* HN

  1. Really big green water melon
  2. A very old black car
  3. Poisonely green long snake
  4. Highly big white building
  5. Very tall green tree
  6. Really clean large room
  7. Very small brown mouse

Task 3

{ num } { Adv } A*HN

  1. Two very small soft animal
  2. Many very large green plant
  3. Three highly tall big building

Task 4

{ Det } { Num } { Adv } A*HN

  1. These two really small black ant
  2. This one veryfast white car
  3. That one very beautiful white rose
  4. These three really dangerous brown lion
  5. The poisonely big black scorpion
  6. The extremely dangerous high temperature
  7. This one very old black train
  8. The highly big great building

Task 5

{ Det } { num } { adv } A* { N } { HN }

  1. This one very hitch silver atm engine
    1. These two really dirty big rubbish truck
    2. That one very cold small ice cream box
  2. Those a lot very beautiful white sands beach

Task 6

{ Det } { num } { adv } A* { N } HN { Adj}

  1. This one very great small mobile phone on the shelf
  2. These two really good black hair dryer on the table

SMALL BUT MIGHTY

Wood decay is caused by small plants called fungi. The organism cannot life on wood that has a moisture content of less than 30%. The wood in most well built home is safe because the moisture content is rarely above 15%. The way to stop decay is simple “keep wood dry”.

Keeping wood dry is not always that easy to do. The outside walls of the house are open to rain that blows against them. Soil carries water. It can wet any wood that touches it. Also, if there plumping leaks in your home, the inside wood can wet.

Wood must be kept dry all times because wood soaks up water and holds it for a long time. From time to time, heavy rains can supply enough water for decay to begin.

If you know that wood will become wet, it can be protected. Wood can be treated with preservatives. For long time safety, to preservative should be put on the under pressure. If the wood comes in touch with the ground, only pressure treatment will do the job. Some pieces of the wood that only get wet from time to time can be treated to stop decay by brushing on a preservative. The correct chemical to use for treatment depends upon what the wood is user for. Some chemicals give off a terrible smell. These are not good for use indoors. Others cause paint to peel. You should mention what the wood is used for when you buy the preservative.

Mold and stain fungi can attack wood. Molds grow mainly on the surface but may get inside the outer sap wood. The dark color caused by mold on wood can be removing by light sanding. Stain fungi go beyond the outer layers and cause a dark color that cannot be removed. Both molds and stain feed on wood. By themselves, they do not decay or weaken the wood. But, the do increase the wood’s ability to take on and hold moisture. Thus, they increase the possibility of future decay. If you see signs of the molds and stain fungi, you may have a problem.

Wood decays slowly at the temperatures below 40 degrees Fahrenheit. So, decay is more repaid in the South than North. Decay is also more rapid in humid than dry regions, even though the plants that caused decay are present everywhere though out the United States.

KECIL TAPI HEBAT

Kayu busuk akan menyebabkan tumbuhnya tumbuhan kecil yang disebut jamur atau fungi. Organism tersebut tidak bisa hidup pada kayu yang memiliki kelembaban kurang dari 30%. Kayu pada bangunan yang kokoh aman karena tingkat kelembapan pada kayu dibawah 15%. Caa untuk menghentikan pembusukan adalah mudahyaitu dengan cara “menjaga kekeringan kayu”.

Menjaga kekeringan kayu tidak selalu mudah dilakukan. Pada dinding luar rumah yang terbuka saat hujan yang menimbulkannya lagi. Tanah yang mengandung air. Air membasahi setiap kayu yang menyentuhnya. Juga, jika mendapatkan kebocoran di rumahmu, yang menyebabkan kayu basah.

Kayu harus tetap kering sepanjang waktu karena kayu  merendam air dan menyimpannya dalam waktu yang cukup lama. Dari waktu ke waktu hujan lebat bisa menyediakan air untuk pembusukan ang selanjutnya.

Jika kamu tahu bahwa kayu akan mendatangkannya, dia bisa menjadi pelindung. Kayu bisa menjadi benar-benar dengan bahan pengawet. Untuk perwaktuan jangka panjang, pelindung harus diletakkan dibawah tekanan (tertekan). Jika kayu bersentuhan dengan tanah tekanan tersebut yang akan melindungi kayu. Beberapa bagian dari kayu yang selalu basah dari waktu ke waktu bisa tahan lama, bisa dilindungi dengan mengoleskan bahan pengawet pada kayu tersebut. Bahan kimia yang tepat untuk digunakan tergantung pada kegunaan dari kayu itu. Beberapa bahan kimia mengeluarkan bau yang keras sekali. Bahan kimia tersebut tidak baik digunakan didalam rumah. Beberapa bahan kimia yang lain menyebabkan cat terkelupas. Kamu harus menyebutkan/menjelaskan kayu itu untuk apa ketika anda membeli bahan pengawet.

Jamur dan noda jamur dapat melindungi kayu. Jamur tumbuh sebagian besar pada permukaan, tapi bisa juga pada bagian dalam sebuah luar getah kayu. Warna gelapdisebabkan oleh jamur pada kayu dan dapat dihilangkan dengan amplas yang ringan. Warna jamur melebihi lapisa luar dari kayu yang menyebabkan warna gelap tidak dapat dihilangkan. Kedua jamur dan noda memakan kayu. Dengan diri mereka sendiri, mereka tidak membusukkan atau memakan kayu. Tetapi, mereka mereka dapat menambah kemampuan kayu melakukan dan menjaga kelembapan. Jadi, mereka menambahkan kemungkinan busuk dikemudian hari. Jika kamu melihat tanda-tanda dari jamur dan noda, kamu mungkin mempunyai sebuah masalah.

Kayu membusuk perlahan pada temperatur antara 40 derajat Fahreinheit. Jadi, pembusukan lebih cepat terjadi di selatan dari pada di utara. Pembusukan kayu juga lebih cepat terjadi ditempat lembab dari pada tempat panas, meskipun tanaman yang menyebabkan pembusukan ada dimana-mana di seluruh Amerika Serikat

RECALING FACTS

  1. Wood decay is caused by small organism called
    1. Algae
    2. b.      Fungi
    3. Germs
    4. In order to live, wood decaying plants need a moisture content of
      1. 15% or  less
      2. 25%
      3. c.       30% or more
      4. The wood in most well built home has a moisture content which is rarely above
        1. a.      15%
        2. 30%
        3. 65%
        4. Which of the following is a good carrier of water?
          1. Cloth
          2. Iron
          3. c.       Soil
          4. Wood can be protected from decay by using
            1. Cement
            2. b.      Preservatives
            3. Water

UNDERSTANDING THE PASSAGE

  1. Wood-decaying organism live well in wood that is
    1. Dry
    2. Smooth
    3. c.       Wet
    4. The outside walls are constantly in contact with
      1. Insects
      2. Moisture
      3. c.       Plants
      4. The best way to keep from decaying is to
        1. a.      Keep it dry
        2. Sand it
        3. Split it
        4. Molds can caused wood to
          1. Bend and snap
          2. b.      Change color
          3. Splinter easily
          4. The possibility of wood decay is high in the southern United States because of the
            1. a.      Higher temperatures
            2. Many rivers
            3. Salt water

RECALING FACTS

  1. Wood decay is caused by small organism called
    1. Algae
    2. e.       Fungi
    3. Germs
    4. In order to live, wood decaying plants need a moisture content of
      1. 15% or  less
      2. 25%
      3. f.       30% or more
      4. The wood in most well built home has a moisture content which is rarely above
        1. d.      15%
        2. 30%
        3. 65%
        4. Which of the following is a good carrier of water?
          1. Cloth
          2. Iron
          3. f.       Soil
          4. Wood can be protected from decay by using
            1. Cement
            2. e.       Preservatives
            3. water

UNDERSTANDING THE PASSAGE

  1. Wood-decaying organism live well in wood that is
    1. Dry
    2. Smooth
    3. f.       Wet
    4. The outside walls are constantly in contact with
      1. Insects
      2. Moisture
      3. f.       Plants
      4. The best way to keep from decaying is to
        1. d.      Keep it dry
        2. Sand it
        3. Split it
        4. Molds can caused wood to
          1. Bend and snap
          2. e.       Change color
          3. Splinter easily
          4. The possibility of wood decay is high in the southern United States because of the
            1. d.      Higher temperatures
            2. Many rivers
            3. Salt water

THE SNAKES

Snake is one example of reptile which classified into the order squamata, whose name means scaly. Snakes have long, thin bodies that are covered with scales. Snakes do not have limbs. There are 3000 species of snakes. Some well known species are rattlesnakes, garter snakes, and water snakes. Generally, snakes paly an important and positive role in nature.

Most snake are non poisonous. Some snakes kill their prey by holding it against the ground and swallowing it alive and whole. The indigo snake and the black racer, for example, are nonpoisonous snakes that obtain food in this way. To take in large prey, the jaws of many snakes are specially hinged to open more widely than usual. Other nonpoisonous snake are constrictors. These wrap themselves around their prey and suffocate it by squeezing with muscular force. The constrictors the swallow the dead prey whole. Rat snakes, the phyton, is a nonpoisonous constrictor. It grows as long as 10 meters, and can consume a small pig.

Poisonous snakes kill their prey by injecting venom, or poison, through a pair of fangs. The fangs, located at the front of the mouth, are large, hollow, curved teeth. The venom moves downs through each fang from a gland either side of the head. These glands make and release venom. There are three families of poisonous snakes. The venomous snakes of two of the families have a pair of tubelike fangs that are always erect. The third family is vipers, which have fangs that are attached to a movable bone. That fangs fold back against the roof of the mouth when not in use.

The first family includes many of the most venomous snakes, such as the cobra, the mamba, and north American coral snake. The coral snake has blunt head and a body with broad rings of red and black that are separated by narrow yellow bands on the scarlet king snake, however, are different from those of the coral snake.

The sea snakes are members of the second family of venomous snakes with nonmovable fangs. These snakes live permanently in the ocean, preying on fish. These very venomous snakes are found in the pacific ocean off the coast of Australia. Many fishermen have been fatally bitten by sea snakes accidentally caught in the fish nets. The old world vipers include the poisonous snakes of Europe, Asia, and Africa, except the cobra. The puff adder belongs to this family, and is the most common poisonous snakes in Africa. It is responsible for more snake bite cases than any other African species.

The pit vipers include the rattlesnake, the copperhead, and the water moccasin of North America. Their name comes from the deep pits on the sides of their heads. These pits are heat-sensing organs that help pit vipers locate warm-blooded prey. The water moccasin eats fish, ducks, and frogs. Copperheads eat mice, other snakes, frogs and toads. The rattlesnake feeds on mice, rats, rabbits and the young of ground-nesting birds.

When a pit viper strikes, its fangs spring forward as the jaws open. The muscles of the poison gland force the venom through canals in the fangs and into the prey. The venom of most snakes is made up of two poisons. One is a hemotoxin, or substance that destroys red blood cells and that alters blood clotting. The other is a neurotoxin, which interferes with the normal function of the nervous system. The neurotoxin causes difficulty in breathing and swallowing it can also interfere with the function of the heart. The sea snakes have a venom that affects muscles.

ULAR

Ular  adalah salah satu contoh dari reptile yang di klasifikasikan ke dalam kelas Squamata, yang namanya memiliki arti bersisik. Ular memiliki tubuh yang panjang dan kecil yang di tutupi oleh sisik. Ular tidak memiliki kaki. Ular memiliki sekitar 3000 spesies. Beberapa spesies yang di kenal antara lain rattlesnake, gartersnake, dan ular air. Pada umumnya, ular memainkan sebuah peranan penting dan posilit di dalam alam.

Kebanyakan ular tidak beracun. Beberapa ular membunuh mangsa mereka dengan menelannya bulat-bulat dalam keadaan hidup. Ular nila dan black racer, sebagai contoh, adalah ular tidak beracun yang memperoleh maanan dengan jalan seperti itu. Untuk menangkap yang lebih besar, ular melebarkan rahangnya agar membuka lebih luas dari biasnya. Jenis ular tidak berbisa lainnya adalah konstriktor atau pelilit. Mereka melilitkan tubuh mereka di sekeliling tubuh mangsa mereka dan melemahkannya dengan cara menekannya dengan menggunakan kekuatan otot mereka. Ular pelilit menelan mangsa yang telah mati dengan utuh. Rattlesnake, ular raja, dan boa memangsa korban mereka dengan jalan seperti itu. Salah satu ular yang ukurannya termasuk paling besar, piton, adalah jenis ular pelilit yang tidak berbisa. Ular ini dapat tumbuh hingga mencapai 10 meter, dan dapat memakan seekor babi kecil.

Ular berbisa membunuh mangsa  mereka dengn menyuntikkan venom, atau racun, melalui sepasang taring. Taring, yang terletak di bagian mulut depan, yang hias, gigi yang berlekuk. Racun di keluarkan melalui setiap taring dari sebuah kelenjar di atas sisi kepala. Kelenjar ini berfungsi dan mengeluarkan venom.

Ada tiga keluarga dari ular berbisa. Dua keluarga dintaranya memiliki taring yang di dalamnya terdapat saluran yang selalu menegang. Keluarga ke tiga adalah jenis ular kecil yang berbisa (viper), yang memiliki taring yang melekat ke tulang rawan. Taring ini melipat ke belakang berlawanan dengan langit-langit ketika tidak di gunakan.

Keluarga pertama termasuk dalam kelompok ular paling berbisa, seperti kobra,ular mamba,dan ular krang Amerika Utara. Ular karang memiliki kepala tumpul dan tmbuh dengan garis lingkar merah dan hitam yang lebar yang dipisahkan oleh linkaran kuning yang kecil. Hal ini sering di bingungkan dengan ular raja merah yang tidak berbahaya, yang memiliki formulasi warna yang mirip dengan ular karang. Jenis ular raja dengan warna merah, hitam, dan kuning, bagaimanapun juga berbeda dengan corak warna yang dimiliki ular karang.

Ular laut termasuk anggota keluarga kedua dari ular berbisa dengan taring kaku. Ular ini hidup permanen di dalam laut, memangsa ikan. Ular yang sangat berbisa ini dapat di temukan di samudera pasifik lepas dari pesisir Australia. Banyak nelayan yang telah digigit dengan fatal oleh ular laut sengaja tertangkap dijaring ikan. The old word vipers dan pit vipers termasuk dalam family ketiga dari ular berbisa The old word vipers termasuk ular berbisa dari Eropa, dan Afrika, kecuali Kobra. The puff adders termasuk dalam family ini, dan merupakan ualr berbisa paling biasa di Afrika.

Pit vipers termasuk dalam kelompok rattlesnake, yaitu jenis ular yang berbisa, dan jenis ular air yang hidup di danau Amerika Utara. Nama ini berasal dari kedalamn lubang yang terdapat di sisi kepala mereka. Lubang ini adalh organ yang terasa panas yang menolong pit viper untuk mengetahui lokasi mangsa berdarah panas. Ular air yang hidup di danau memangsa ikan-ikan, bebek, dan katak. Jenis ular berbisa memangsa tikus, jenis ular lain, dan katak. Sedangkan rattlesnake memangsa tikus, kelinci, dan burung-burung muda yang baru keluar dari sarang.

Ketika seekor pit vipers menyerang, taring-taringnya menerkam ke depan seperti rahang yang membuka. Otot kelenjar racun mendorong racun keluar melalui saluran di dalam taring dan di masukkan ke dalam tubuh mangsa. Racun dari kebanyakan ular di buat dari du jenis racun. Pertama adalah hemotoksin, atau substansi yang mengganggu sel darah merah dan menyebabkan penggumpalan darah. Yang lainnya adalah neurotoksin, yang mengganggu pungsi normal system saraf. Neurotoksin menyebabkan kesulitan bernafas dan menelan. Ini jug adapt mengganggu fungsi jantung. Ular-ular laut memiliki racun yang memmpengaruhi kerja otot.

Question Of The Topic Of “Snake”

  1. List the characteristic of snake, and it is examples !
  2. What are the example of the constrictors snake ?
  3. List the differences between poisonous and nonpoisoinous snake ?
  4. Explain how do snakes move !
  5. List the family name of snakes !
  6. What are the meaning in Indonesian
    1. Fang                      d. hematoxin
    2. Prey                       e. Blood Clotting
    3. Venomous             f. swallowing

Answers Of The Topic Of “Snakes”

  1. Characteristic of snakes :

– Have long and thin bodies

– The bodies of snakes are covered with scales

– Don’t have limbs

Example: Phyton, Sea snakes, Garter snakes, Rattlesnakes, Cobra, King snakes, Boas, ect.

  1. Some example of contictors snake:

Rat snakes, King snakes, Boas, and Phyton.

  1. Poisonous:

–          Kill their prey by injecting venom or poison.

–          It has poison.

–          They use their fangs to kill their prey.

Nonpoisonous:

–          Kill their by holding it against and swallowing it alive and whole.

–          It doesn’t has poison.

–          They use muscular force to kill their prey.

  1. Snakes move by bend aside their bodies to reach some places. They used theirmusculr contraction force to move.
  1. The families of snakes:
    1. Venomous snake with moveable fangs.

Ex: Cobra, Mamba, and the North American Coral snakes.

  1. Venomous snake with non moveable fangs.

Ex: Sea snakes

  1. Vipers or small posinous snakes.
  2. a. Fang                                    : Taring beracun

b. Prey                         : Mangsa

c. Venomous               : Memiliki venom / bercun venom.

d. Hemotoxin              : Racun ular yang menyerang hemoglobin.

e. Blood clotting         : Darah menggumpal.

f. Swallowing              : Menelan.

SEWAGE, SLUDGE AND SCUM

More than 99% of swage is water. Although less than one percent of swage is the organic waste part, that part can be the most offensive. However all sewage should be regarded as dangerous.

Sewage contains all the bacteria and viruses common to be house hold. In the event of the in the family, these germs are also found in the sewage. So it is important for an individual sewage disposal system to work well.

Discharging sewage on the ground surface is a nuisance of odors and the appearance of the surfacing septic effluent. Then too, some disease organisms may be present of the effluents that seep from the poorly working disposal field.

An individual sewage disposal system should be used only where adequate land for the absorption of effluent is available. The subsurface soil characteristic should vapor absorption without the spoiling the groundwater or nearby wells. The usual house hold sewage disposal system consists of the septic tank and an absorption system for the disposal of the septic tank effluent.

The septic tank is the simple holding compartment with a 750 to 1000 gallon capacity. This includes capacity for garbage grinders and automatic washers. Some codes don’t provide for the use of these appliances. In these cases the tank size require would be fifty percent smaller.

Flow through the tank is slow and sluggish, and for long periods no flow may occur. In the tank heavier solid settle. Lighter fats and solid greases rise to the surface and from the party submerged floating scum. The outlet of the tank is designed to prevent passage of the floating scum and settled sludge. Liquid leaving the tank lows from a depth that traps the scum and sludge in the tank. This is usually by a baffle or submerged pipe outlet.

Within the tank, the trapped materials undergo strong forces of purification and decomposition as the result of bacteria found naturally in the sewage. So it is unnecessary to add any compounds or ingredients for this purpose.

Eventually, the tank has to be cleaned to prevent the bypass of sludge or scum that would clog the soil absorption part of the system. Three to five years intervals should be sufficient, but this can only be learned through the particular family’s experience. A new system should be cleaned after about one year and experience will then dictate the proper interval.

LIMBAH, KOTORAN DAN BUIH

Lebih dari 99% limbah adalah air. Walaupun kurang dari satu persen limbah adalah dari bagian barang sisa yang organik, yanitu bagian dapat yang paling dapat menyerang. Bagaimanapun semua limbah harus diwaspadai ketika berbahaya.

Limbah berisi semua bakteri dan virus yang umum untuk rumah tangga. Dalam hal keluarga, kuman ini adalah juga ditemukan/bersumber dari limbah. Maka adalah penting bagi perorangan sistem pengolahan limbah untuk bekerja dengan baik.

Mecat limbah ditempat itu permukaan adalah suatu gangguan bau dan penampilan permukaan anak sungai busuk. Kemudian juga, beberapa penyakit organisma mungkin adalah menyajikan anak sungai yang merembes dengan kurang baik bekerja bidang penjualan.

Perorangan penjualan limbah sistem harus digunakan hanya jika daratan cukup untuk penyerapan anak sungai yang tersedia. Lahan yang di bawah permukaan tanah Karakteristik perlu penyerapan uap air tanpa memanjakan anak itu air tanah atau sumur-sumur dekat. Sistem Penjualan Limbah Rumah tangga yang umum terdiri dari sumur wc dan suatu sistem penyerapan untuk penjualan anak sungai sumur wc.

Sumur wc adalah yang sederhana memegang kompartemen dengan suatu 750 sampai 1000 kapasitas galon. Ini meliputi kapasitas untuk gerinda/tukang asah sampah dan mesin cuci otomatis. Beberapa kode tidak menyediakan penggunaan dari peralatan ini. Di dalam kasus ini ukuran tangki yang diperlukan adalah kurang dari lima puluh pesen.

Alir sepanjang tangki itu adalah melambat dan melempem, dan untuk periode lama tidak boleh terjadi arus. Di dalam tangki yang lebih berat padat mengatasi. Geretan yang gemuk dan lemak padat naik ke permukaan dan dari pihak yang menyelam mengapung buih. Saluran tangki dirancang untuk mencegah jalan lintasan mengapung buih dan mantap kotoran. Cairan yang meninggalkan tangki itu yang rendah dari suatu kedalaman yang menjerat kotoran dan buih di dalam tangki itu. Pada umumnya ini adalah  suatu pelat-buang atau  saluran pipa menyelam.

Di dalam tangki, material yang terjerat mengalami kekuatan pembusukan dan pemurnian yang kuat sebagai hasil bakteri ditemukan secara alami di dalam limbah itu. Maka [itu] adalah tak perlu untuk menambahkan manapun mencampur atau ramuan untuk tujuan ini.

Yang  secepatnya, tangki harus dibersihkan untuk mencegah membypass kotoran atau buih yang akan bakiak penyerapan lahan bagian dari sistem [itu]. Tiga [bagi/kepada] lima tahun interval harus cukup, tetapi ini hanya dapat dipelajari melalui pengalaman keluarga tertentu. Suatu sistem baru harus dibersihkan setelah sekitar satu tahun dan pengalaman akan kemudian mendikte sesuai interval.

CROCODILE

Crocodiles are large reptiles that live in water. Scientifically, covering all species of crocodile Crocodylidae tribal members, including the crocodile fish (Tomistoma schlegelii). However this name can also be worn loosely to refer to ‘crocodile’ alligators, Kaiman and gavial; the crocodile relatives that different tribes.

Crocodiles are generally inhabit freshwater habitats like rivers, lakes, swamps and other wetlands, but there also live in brackish water such as the estuarine crocodile. The main food crocodile is vertebrate animals such as the nation’s fish, reptiles and mammals, sometimes also prey on mollusks and crustaceans depending on the species. Crocodiles are ancient animals, which is only slightly changed due to evolution since the time of dinosaurs.
Outside the ancient form, the crocodile is really a complex reptiles. Unlike the usual reptiles, crocodiles have a heart bears four, midriff (diaphragm) and the cerebral cortex. On the other hand, clearly shows the outer morphology of living aquatic predators. He was a “streamlined” allows it to swim fast. Crocodile folding legs attached to his body back, to reduce water resistance and allow increased speed during swimming. The toes are webbed swimming behind him, which, although not used as a booster when swimming fast, this membrane is very useful when he had to suddenly turn around or make sudden movements in the water, or to start swimming. Webbed feet is also an advantage when crocodiles need to move or walk in shallow water.
Crocodile body size varies widely from species to species, ranging from the dwarf crocodile to giant estuarine crocodiles. Large-bodied species can grow longer than 5 m and has a weight exceeding 1,200 kg. However, only babies alligator measuring about 20 cm when hatched from eggs. Species of crocodile is the largest estuarine crocodiles, which live in the region of Southeast Asia down to northern Australia.
Estuarine crocodiles largest size is still debated. Largest alligator ever recorded was a giant estuarine crocodiles along the 8.6 m, which was shot by a school teacher in Australia. [2] The largest living crocodile is a crocodile along the estuary of 7.1 m in Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, Orissa, of India. In June 2006, his record is recorded in The Guinness Book of World Records.

BUAYA

             Buaya adalah reptilbertubuh besar yang hidup di air. Secara ilmiah, buaya meliputi seluruh spesies anggota suku Crocodylidae, termasuk pula buaya ikan (Tomistoma schlegelii). Meski demikian nama ini dapat pula dikenakan secara longgar untuk menyebut ‘buaya’ aligator, kaiman dan gavial; yakni kerabat-kerabat buaya yang berlainan suku.

Buaya umumnya menghuni habitat perairan tawar seperti sungai, danau, rawa dan lahan basah lainnya, namun ada pula yang hidup di air payau seperti buaya muara. Makanan utama buaya adalah hewan-hewan bertulang belakang seperti bangsa ikan, reptil dan mamalia, kadang-kadang juga memangsa moluska dan krustasea bergantung pada spesiesnya. Buaya merupakan hewan purba, yang hanya sedikit berubah karena evolusi semenjak zaman dinosaurus.

Di luar bentuknya yang purba, buaya sesungguhnya merupakan hewan melata yang kompleks. Tak seperti lazimnya reptil, buaya memiliki jantung beruang empat, sekat rongga badan (diafragma) dan cerebral cortex. Pada sisi lain, morfologi luarnya memperlihatkan dengan jelas cara hidup pemangsa akuatik. Tubuhnya yang “streamline” memungkinkannya untuk berenang cepat. Buaya melipat kakinya ke belakang melekat pada tubuhnya, untuk mengurangi hambatan air dan memungkinkannya menambah kecepatan pada saat berenang. Jari-jari kaki belakangnya berselaput renang, yang meskipun tak digunakan sebagai pendorong ketika berenang cepat, selaput ini amat berguna tatkala ia harus mendadak berbalik atau melakukan gerakan tiba-tiba di air, atau untuk memulai berenang. Kaki berselaput juga merupakan keuntungan manakala buaya perlu bergerak atau berjalan di air dangkal.

Ukuran tubuh buaya sangat bervariasi dari jenis ke jenis, mulai dari buaya kerdil hingga buaya muara raksasa. Spesies bertubuh besar dapat tumbuh lebih panjang dari 5 m dan memiliki berat melebihi 1.200 kg. Walaupun demikian, bayi-bayi buaya hanya berukuran sekitar 20 cm tatkala menetas dari telur. Spesies buaya terbesar adalah buaya muara, yang hidup di wilayah Asia Tenggara hingga ke Australia utara.

Ukuran terbesar buaya muara hingga kini masih diperdebatkan. Buaya terbesar yang pernah tercatat adalah seekor buaya muara raksasa sepanjang 8,6 m, yang tertembak oleh seorang guru sekolah di Australia.[2] Sedangkan buaya terbesar yang masih hidup adalah seekor buaya muara sepanjang 7,1 m di Suaka Margasatwa Bhitarkanika, Orissa, India. Pada bulan Juni 2006, rekornya dicatat pada The Guinness Book of World Records.[9]

LION

            Lion (Sanskrit: Simha) or in scientific name Panthera leo is an animal of the family Felidae or cat breed. The lion is an animal that lives in groups. Usually consists of one male and many females. This group then keep his territory. Lions weight approximately between 150 kg (females) and 225kg (male). Aged between 10 to 15 years in the forest. But if maintained can be up to 20 years.

Lioness is much more active in hunting, while the male lion is more relaxed and always wait and ask for rations from the results of the female game. Male lion believed to be superior and powerful compared to other big cats, but the drawback is that the lion could not climb a tree as good as other big cats.

Growing male lion in thick fur around the neck, it is more advantageous to protect the neck, especially in a free fight between the big cats, which is famous for always pounce neck to immobilize enemies.

Other large cats, such as Cheetah and Leopard has a much smaller body size than the Lions. Lions also have one of the differences with the Tigers, although derived from the same family, lions do not like the water, unlike the tiger who like the water.

Singa

Sanskerta: Siṃha atau dalam nama ilmiahnya Panthera leo adalah seekor hewan dari keluarga felidae atau jenis kucing. Singa merupakan hewan yang hidup dalam kelompok. Biasanya terdiri dari seekor jantan dan banyak betina. Kelompok ini lantas menjaga daerah kekuasaannya. Berat Singa kurang lebih antara 150 kg (betina) dan 225kg (jantan). Umurnya antara 10 sampai 15 tahun di hutan. Tetapi jika dipelihara bisa sampai 20 tahun.

Singa betina jauh lebih aktif dalam berburu, sedangkan Singa jantan lebih santai dan selalu bersikap menunggu dan meminta jatah dari hasil buruan para betinanya.Singa jantan dipercaya lebih unggul dan perkasa dibandingkan dengan kucing-kucing besar lainnya,tetapi kelemahan singa ialah tidak bisa memanjat pohon sebagus kucing-kucing besar lainnya.

Singa jantan di tumbuhi bulu tebal disekitar tengkuknya, hal ini lebih menguntungkan untuk melindungi tengkuknya, terutama dalam perkelahian bebas antara kucing besar, yang terkenal dengan selalu menerkam tengkuk untuk melumpuhkan musuhnya.

Kucing besar lainnya, seperti Cheetah dan Macan Tutul memiliki ukuran tubuh jauh lebih kecil dibanding Singa.Singa juga punya salah satu perbedaan dengan Harimau,walaupun berasal dari keluarga yang sama, Singa tidak suka dengan air, berbeda dengan harimau yang suka dengan air.

PART ONE

ENGLISH STRUCTURE

Task 1

{ A } HN

  1. Handsome  young man
  2. Small red ant
  3. Smart young boy
  4. White long snake
  5. Beautiful white flower

Task 2

{ Adv } A* HN

  1. Really big green water melon
  2. A very old black car
  3. Poisonely green long snake
  4. Highly big white building
  5. Very tall green tree
  6. Really clean large room
  7. Very small brown mouse

Task 3

{ num } { Adv } A*HN

  1. Two very small soft animal
  2. Many very large green plant
  3. Three highly tall big building

Task 4

{ Det } { Num } { Adv } A*HN

  1. These two really small black ant
  2. This one veryfast white car
  3. That one very beautiful white rose
  4. These three really dangerous brown lion
  5. The poisonely big black scorpion
  6. The extremely dangerous high temperature
  7. This one very old black train
  8. The highly big great building

Task 5

{ Det } { num } { adv } A* { N } { HN }

  1. This one very hitch silver atm engine
    1. These two really dirty big rubbish truck
    2. That one very cold small ice cream box
  2. Those a lot very beautiful white sands beach

Task 6

{ Det } { num } { adv } A* { N } HN { Adj}

  1. This one very great small mobile phone on the shelf
  2. These two really good black hair dryer on the table

Task 7

Underline the verb group in the following sentences and name the parts as in the above axample. i.e. the MAIN VERB and the AUXILIARY verb. The first example has been done for you.

  1. The tunnel was closed 80 years ago.

Was ® Auxiliary

Closed ® Main Verb

  1. Paper is made from wood

is®Auxiliary

Made®Main Verb

  1. In many countries, the invironment is threatened by pollution

Is®Auxiliary

threatened®Main Verb

  1. Sunlight is reflected by white surfaces.

is®Auxiliary

reflected®Main verb

  1. Many car engines are coold by water.

are®Auxiliary

coold®Main verb

  1. The oxygen balance in the atmosphere is maintained by photosynthesis.

is®Auxiliary

Maintaned®Main verb

Task 8

Underline the VERB GROUP in the following example and name the parts in same  way as the above examples.

  1. The area of a circle can be calculated using geometry.

Can®modals

Be®Auxiliary

Calculated®Main verb

  1. Concrete should contain at least 12% cement.

Should®Auxiliary

Countain®Main verb

  1. The impurities in the water are eliminated by a filter.

Are®Auxiliary

Eliminated®Main verb

  1. Fresh water can be distilled from sea water.

Can® modals                                           Be® Auxilary

Distilled® Main Verb

  1. Modern aero planes are powered by jet engines.

Are ® Auxiliary

Powered ® Main Verb

  1. All books should be returned to the library by Friday.

Should ® modals                                                 Be ® Auiliary

Returned ® Main Verb

  1. Distilled water does not corrode iron.

distilled ® Main Verb                              water ® head noun

does ® Auxiliary                                      not ® negatives

  1. Objects of different weights can be separated by a centrifuge.

Can ® modals                                          Be ® Auxialiary

Separated ® Main Verb

Task 9

Using the sentences above as examples, underline and identify the farts of the VRB GROUPS in the following sentences.

  1. The fumes of nitric acid should not be breathed.

Should ® modals                                                 be ® Auxiliary

Not ® negatives                                       breathed ® Main Verb

  1. Agriculture could not have been coused by leak.

Could ® modals                                       have been ® Auxiliary

Not ® negatives                                       coused ® Main Verb

  1. The ship has not been raised from the sea floor.

Has ® Auxiliary                                       been ® Auxiliary

Not ® negatives                                       raised ® Main Verb

  1. Expensive spraying programs are not required.

Are ® Auxiliary                                       required ® Main Verb

Not ® negative

  1. Malaria cannot be eradicated in rural areas.

Can ® modals                                          be ® Auxiliary

Not ® negatives                                       eradicated ® Main Verb

  1. An asteroid could not have killed the dinosaurus.

Could ® modals                                       have ® Auxiliary

Not ® negatives                                       killed ® Main Verb

Task 10

Underline VERB GROUP in the following sentences. Then identify and name the parts of VERB GROUP, as in the above examples.

  1. Wood is usually cut with a saw.

Is ® Auxiliary

Usually ® Adverb + frequency

  1. Oven temperatures are usually controlled by a thermostat.

Are ® Auxiliary                                       Usually ® Adverb + frequency

Controlled ®  Main Verb

  1. Dangerous experiments should always be conducted under strict supervision.

Should ® modals                                     Always ® Adverb + frequency

Be ® Auxiliary                                         Conducted ® Main Verb

  1. Difficult mathematical problems can almost  always be solved using computers.

Can ® modals                                          Almost always ® Adverb + frequency

Be ® Auxiliary                                         Solved ® Main Verb

  1. The hole in the ozone layer  will always have to be  monitored.

Will ® modals                                          Always ® Adverb + frequency

Have to be ® Auxiliary                            Monitored ® Main Verb

  1. A long thesis would not usually have been completed in such a short time.

Would ® modals                                      Not ® negatives

Usually ®Adverb + frequency                Have been ® Auxiliary

Complicated ® Main Verb

Task 11

Underline the VERB GROUPS in the following sentences. Then identify and name the parts of the VERB GROUP.

  1. 34% of solar radiation is directly reflected back into space.

Directly ® Adv.                                 Reflected ® Main Verb

  1. Long infared waves are readily absorbed by atmospheric.

Readily ® Adv.                                 Absorbed ® Main Verb.

  1. The atmospheric temperatures of some region are profoundly influenced by winds and ocean currents.

Profoundly ® Adv                             influenced ® Main Verb.

  1. The difference between analog and digital data is not always clearly understood.

Always ® Adverb + frequency         clearly ® Adv.

Understood ® Main Verb

  1. A nuclear chain reaction takes place very rapidly.

Reaction ® Main Verb                       very rapidly ® Adv.

  1. Molecules in a fluid do not conduct heat very well.

Conduct ® Main Verb                       very well ® Adv.

PART TWO

READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY

ENRICHNESS

 

  1. THE MOVE PROCESS OF AN AMOEBA

Firstly, when amoeba move the ectoplasm become liquid at a certain point the animal start to put the pseudopodium.Secondly, the stream of endoplasm move up the centerof the animal into pseudopodium.

Thirtly, it spread out and become firmer and then to the ectoplasm at the sides. And finally, at the rear and the opposite happens so that the whole animal moves towards the pseudopodium.

I find the new words :

  • Firmer        : lebih kokoh / kuat
  • Aqueezes   : tekanan
  • Rear           : bagian belakang
  • Toward      : kearah
  • Spread       : penyebaran
  • Stream       : aliran
  1. SNAKE MOVEMENT

Firstly, for side-winding, snake move in a seriesof steps.

Secondly, on rough grounds most snakes mone by passing waves se muscle movement down their bodies. Then the wave push against stones and other object.

On some other ground, snakes may move in aconcertina fashion.

Thirtly, snake draws its body up into a series of bends. After than, the snake keeping its tail region firmly on the ground. Finally, it the throws its head and body forward.

I find the new words :

  • Concertina       : semacam akordion
  • Bends              : berliku
  • Leap                : lompatan
  • Sideways         : menyimpang/membujur
  • Rough             : kasar.
  1. HOW DO BATS FIND THEIR WAY IN THE DARK ?

Some bats like the long eared bat, produce sound from their mounth and other species like the greather horseshoe bat, produce there sound from their noses. Firstly, the bats receive information about the direction, loudness and pitch (high or low notes) of echoes returning from flaying insect with their amazing accuracy.

I find the new words :

  • Echoes             : gema
  • Accuracy         : ketelitian
  • Loudness         :sedikit keras
  • Reflected        : menggambarkan
  • Pitched                        : puncak
  1. THE PROCESS METAMORPHOSIS OF BUTTERFLY

Firstly, start from eggs and then from eggs to be catterpillar which happened change of form, from circle to oval. A caterpillar life is spent feeding and growing.

, the caterpillar grow to be pupa or chrysalis and after than to be adult emerging.

Finally, adult emerging change of from to be the beautiful butterfly.

I find new words:

  • Chrysalis         : kepompong
  • Shades             : ganti kulit
  • Silk theards       :benang sutra
  1. HOW DOES A CAMEL CONSERVE WATER ?

If  the camel drinking water, the water there save in the which located in its hump. The camel not sweat and urine very much. The camel’s humph contains fat which can change become energy and to be of water. So, that can adapted with situation of desert.

I find new words :

  • Hump                : punggung
  • Harm                 : kerugian
  • Scraggy             : kering
  • Survive                         : hidup lebih lama.
  1. HOW DOES BEES MAKE HONEY?

Firstly, the bees perch on the flower to stuck up the nectar and pollen for food. They uses its long proboscis to stuck up the nectar it taken into bees honey stomach and gather pollen which is scrapes into to pollen baskets on its back legs.

Secondly, the both werw brought back to the nest and stored in cells.

Finally, the bees  throw their saliva that is honey. So, the honey is not gathered from flower  but there action of bees saliva.

I find new words :

  • Converted         : mengubah
  • Gather               : mengumpulkan
  • Saliva                : air ludah
  • Storing              : menyimpan
  • Wax                  : lilin
  • Proboscis          : belalai
  • Suck                  : menghisap
  • Scrapes                         : mengeruk

INTRODUCTION

THE ENGLISH SENTENCES

English has a very large vocabulary – the largest of any language. This is partly because there are many words we can use for exactly the same thing. In many cases, there is a word which comes to us from old English, a word from Latin/greek and a word French.

Examples :

Rise                             mount                                      ascend

Ask                              question                                   interrogate

Time                            age                                           epoch

As mentioned above, old English was used by the common people and Latin and French were used in education and government. Nowadays, old English has become spoken English and the Latin/French influences can be seen in written English, specially scientific and technical English. This is way spoken English we say “go in”, but in the technical writing we would say “enter”.

Other example are:

Spoken English                                   Written English

Go out                                                 exit

Go up                                                  ascend

Go down                                             descend

Go across                                            traverse

As you can see, the verbs (kata kerja)in the left column are all irregular verbs and the verbs in the right column are all regular verbs. This difference between spoken and written English is also true for words other than nouns (kata benda). For example we use the word “big” in speaking but “large” in writing. The same in true for “little” (spoken) and “small” (written) . So, you will see in English there are two languages in the one language – one for speaking and for writing. It’s very important to remember this difference when you are learning English.   It sounds very strange if we speak in written in English or we write in spoken English.

 

MATERIAL OF ENGLISH SUBJECT

LESSON 1

Standard of competency :

  • After studying this lesson student will be able to analyze part of English sentence and contruct their own sentences based on examples.

Basic competencies :

  1. Identify function of each optional elements in subject of English sentences
  2. Construct student own sentence based on examples
  3.  Write students own sentences based on specific formula
  4. Distinguish the function of optional element of subject.

THE SUBJECT

In English, the order of the parts of a sentences is very important. in the text chapter, we will look at language to talk about parts of a sentences. This very important and will help you begin to write more complicated sentences.

In spoken English, the noun parts of a sentences are often simple and verb parts are complicated. In written English, especially in scientific / technical English, the verbs parts are often simple and the noun parts complicated. All sentences in English must contain at least one verb. The simplest sentence in English has a subject and a verb. The subject normally comes before the verb.

Examples :

  1. The boy cried (the boy is the subject, cried is the verb)
  2. The ship sank (the ship is the subject, sank is the verb)

In English, a piece of language with a SUBJECT and a VERB is called a CLAUSE. in the example above, the sentences have only one  clause. Other sentences may have two or more clauses.

The subject (noun group) in an English sentence can be very simple or very complicate. The subject of sentences is the “doer” of an action and so must be person oh thing. To “doer” is therefore a pronoun, a noun, or a group of words based on a noun . In this chapter we will look at each of these types of noun group as subject. That is, we will look at the noun group as:

  1. A pronoun
  2. A single noun
  3. A group of words based on a noun

TYPE 1. PRONOUN AS NOUN GROUP/SUBJECT

As mention above, the subject in a English sentence can be very complicated or very simple. Perhaps the simplest kind of subject is the one where the noun groups consist of a pronoun such as → I, He, She, You, We, They, It, etc.

  • I waited
  • She went home
  • He conducted the experiment
  • You are lazy boy
  • We tried the taste
  • They came late.

Sentences like these, with PRONOUN as SUBJECT are rare in scientific English. This is because scientific writing is not concerned with people but rather it is concerned with things, facts, events, etc. it is more usual in scientific English to use the two types of subject which will be explained below.

TYPE 2. SINGLE NOUN AS SUBJECT/NOUN GROUP

In this type of subject/noun group, the only compulsory element is a noun. Therefore, the noun group may consist of a single noun.

In the following examples, the subject is underline and the head noun is indicated. Note that the head noun (HN) is the only element in the noun group. Example:

  1. Sound travels at 333 m/sec (Sound is HN)
  2. Water solidifies at zero degrees celcius (Water is HN)

TYPE 3. GROUP OF WORDS AS SUBJECT/NOUN GROUP

The noun group may also consist of a group of words. In such a group there is always a main oh head noun as well as other word, such as numbers, adjectives, adverbs, etc. the extra words in the noun group give extra information about the noun. In simple noun groups, the extra information is placed before the head noun. In the following examples the subject is underlined.

Examples:

1)      The reactor exploded → RECTOR is the head noun (HN)

2)      The bridge collapsed→ BRIDGE is the head noun (HN)

3)      The heavy rain caused the floods in Lombok → RAIN is the head noun (HN)

From the above examples, it is clear that our formula for the NOUN GROUP → HN is complete, because in example (1) and (2) above there are two elements in each SUBJECT and in example (3) there are three elements. Therefore we will have two refine our formula to include the other optional elements which can occur in a noun group. In the rest of this lesson, we will look more closely at the optional elements of the noun group.

OPTIONAL ELEMENT 1 → ADJECTIVE (A)

Adjectives give more information about the HN. They are always placed before the HN.

Examples:

  1. Soft woods are cheaper than hard woods (soft is an adjective and woods is the HN)
  2. Black surfaces do not reflect light well.

Our formula for the noun group now becomes:

{A} HN → where the brackets { } indicate that the element is not compulsory, i.e. optional. {A} is an optional element ADJECTIVE, and HN is the compulsory element HEAD NOUN. Often, however we use more than the adjective in the noun group.

To account for using more than one adjective, we must change our formula to:

{A}* HN→ where {A} is the optional element (Adjective), and the * indicates that the element adjective may occur more than once.

Note : some sentences may containing more than one adjective.

OPTIONAL ELEMENT 2 → ADVERB (Adv.)

Adjectives in the noun group can be modified by adverbs give us more information about adjectives E.g.

An Extremely beautiful young women  (an extremely is Adv, beautiful and young is A, women is HN).

An adverb modifies only the adjective immediately after it. Each adjective in the noun group can have one adverbs, or stand alone. E.g.

An extremely expensive very large light blue house

Adv.                   A         Adv     A     Adv    A      HN

Note: an adverb in the noun group cannot stand alone. It must attached to Adjective. To account for these adverb and adjective combinations, we  must ance again after our formula fpr the noun group to :

{{Adv} A}* HN

OPTIONAL ELEMENT 3→ NUMBERS (NUM)

Numbers and other expressions of quantity such as : many, much, a lot of, are placed before the ADVERB/ADJECTIVE element in the noun group. E.g.

Two very electric train

Two → Num                  Very → Adv

Fast electric→ A                        Train → HN

Since the number element is also optional, the formula for the noun group becomes:

{Num} {{Adv} A}* HN

OPTIONAL ELEMENT 4→ DETERMINERS (Det)

Determiner consist of two types :

  1. The demonstrative pronouns → this and that, and their plurals, these and those
  2. The definite article, the, and its plurals, the

Examples:

  1. Those two very intelligent students
  2. The highly dangerous volatile solutions.

Our formula thus becomes:

{Det} {Num} {{Adv} A}* HN

A and its plurals  some can also be regarded as det but cannot be used with num.

 

OPTIONAL ELEMENT 5→ NOUN (N)

Another way of including more information In the Noun Group is by using.

A NOUN + NOUN ( N + N ) combination

In these cases, there is still only one head noun. These combination occur very frequently in scientific English. Example:

River water                 = the water in rivers ( Rivers is N, water is HN )

A petrol engine           = an engine which uses petrol ( Petrol is N, engine is HN )

The formula for the noun group, thus becomes:

{Det} {Num} {{ Adv} A }* {N} HN

OPTIONAL ELEMENT 6 ® ADJUNCT (Adj)

Adding information after the HEAD NOUN is yet another way of packing more information into the noun group. We often use “of” or some other PREPOITION in these cases. (the subjects are underlined). Example:

  1. The volume of a gas varies with its pressure

HN—Adj—-

In this example, “volume” is the head noun and “of a gas” is extra information placed after the head noun.

  1. A micture of Nitric Acid and Hydrocholoric Acid dissolved gold

HN———————-Adj————————-

The element Adj, as mentioned above is optional but can occur more than once in the noun group.

Example ® the books in the cupboard on the top self…..

Det Hn ——–Adj 1——-  ———Adj 2———-

In our formula, we will represent this as : {Adj}* and our formula then becomes:

Det} {Num} {{ Adv} A }* {N} HN {Adj}

FINAL WORD ON NOUN GROUPS

Using formula we have developed above, we can generate both very simple and very complex noun groups. Look at the example below:

 

{Det} {Num} {{ Adv} A }* {N} HN {Adj}

{Det}               {Num}                        {Adv}             {A}*               {N}                 HN                  {Adj} Verb    

Those                   2                  extremely        dangerous        water             samples             in those are

Bottles

Highly             corrosive                                                          on the shelf

Viscous                                                           on the left

Green                                                              on the top

The minimal noun group that can be generated from the above table is: samples ARE…. Since HN is the only compulsory element. On other hand, the maximal noun group that can be generated is:

Those 2 extremely dangerous, highly corrosive, viscous, green water samples in those bottles on the shel on the left at the top ARE……

Fortunately, extremely long noun groups are rare. However, they do occur. You should try to get used to them, especially in reading and writing. The ability to recognize the head noun in the noun group is very important. This is because, if the head noun is singular, then the verb must be singular. And the head noun is plural. Than the verb must be plural. The verb must agree with the head noun. Look carefully at the following examples:

The teacher  of the student IS……

The teacher of the students IS…..

The teachers of the student ARE….

The teachers of the students ARE….

Whether we use “IS” or “ARE” is determined by the HEAD NOUN. It is not determined by the noun closest to the verb, i.e ® student /s in the examples above.

LESSON 2

Standard of competency:

  • After studying this lesson student will be able to analyze part of English sentenceand construct their own sentences based on examples.

Basic competencies:

  1. Identify function of each optional elements in subject of English sentences.
  2. Construct student own sentences based on examples.
  3. Write students own sentences based on specific formula.
  4. Distinguish the function of optional element of subject.

THE VERB

As mentioned at the beginning of lesson 1, the SUBJECT or NOUN GROUP (NG) is one of the compulsory elements in a clouse – the other one is the VERB GROUP (VG). The VERB GROUP in English is often very complicated. This is because in contains a lot of information, i. e. information about tense, etc. for this reason, a large part of many English courses is concerned with verbs. Similarly, in our course, we will spend a lot of time looking at the VERB GROUP.

THE VERB “BE” AND” HAVE”

The verb “be” and “have” are so important in scientific and technical English that we will devote a separate ahapther to each of these verbs.

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERB

Oteher verbs in English fall into two catehories, i.e. TRANSITIVE and INTRANSITIVE.

TRANSITIVE VERBS are those verbs which can take an OBJECT.

INTRANSITIVE VERBS are those verbs which cannot take an OBJECT.

Sometimes the difference between TRANSITIVE and INTRANSITIVE verbs is very clear. Some verbs, for example, can be used only TRANSITIVELY and other verbs can be used only INTRANSITIVELY. Examples:

  • Raise the scientifist raised the temperature of the solution.
  • Rise the temperature of the solution rose.

The verbs “raise” must take an OBJECT (i.e. it is always TRANSITIVE), where as the verbs “rise” cannot take an OBJECT (i.e. it is always INTRANSITIVE). Many verbs can be either TRANSITIVE or INTRANSITIVE, they may be TRANSITIVE in one sentence and INTRANSITIVE in another. Examples:

  1. He studies hard……………………………INTRANS
  2. He studies every night…………………….INTRANS
  3. He studies his lecture notes carefully……..TRANS

This distinction between TRANSITIVE and INTRANSITIVE verbs is very important because only TRANSITIVE verbs can become PASSIVE.

THIS IS THE STRUCTRUSE OF THE VERB GROUP

A VERB GROUP consist of a least a MAN VERB – this is the only compulsory element. Apart from the MAIN VERB, there may be a number of optional elements – we will look at these later in the following pages. By adding these optional elements, we can include more information in the VERB GROUP. In the following sentences, the VERB GROUP consist of only a MAIN VERB. (in the example, the MAIN VERB is underlined).

  1. This bottle contains Nitric acid. “contains” is the MAIN VERB.
  2. Sea water corrodes iron. “Corrodes” is the MAIN VERB.

In scientific and technical English, it is very common that the VERB GROUP consist only of a MAIN VERB. However, the VERB GROUP also frequently contains a number of optional elements.

OPTIONAL ELEMENT IN THE VERB GROUP

  1. AUXILIARIES (Aux)

Auxiliaries are parts of the following verbs:

“to be”               am, is, was, were, be been, being.

“to have”           has, have, had.

“to do”              does, do, did.

The function of AUXILIARIES is to indicate both TENSE (present, past, future, ect.) and VOICE (active, passive). To indicate TENSE and VOICE, the AUXILIARIES are used in varios combinations before the MAIN VERB. The verbs “to be”, and “to have” can also be the MAIN VERB in clause. They have roles besides being AUXILIARIES.

  1. MODALS (Mod)

MODALS are added to VERB GROUP to add extra information to the VERB GROUP. At this stage in the course, we only want you to identify MODALS. We well look at the meaning of these. MODALS at a later time. There are three groups of MODALS in scientific English:

GROUP 1 ® can, may, might, could.

The MODALS are used to express ability and probability.

GROUP 2 ®will

In scientific English, “will” is used for making predictions are made when we are not fully certain but are fairly certain that something will happen

GROUP 3 ® should, must, have to

These modal are used to give warnings, introduction or advice.

  1. NEGATIVES (Neg)

In NEGATIVE sentences, the word “not” is added to the first MODAL or the first AUXILIARY.

  1. ADVERBS

SELF EVALUATION

After followed the course of English during one semester started on September 2011 and finished on December 2011, I got more knowledge and new experience that would be valuable lesson for me. Learning English at Biology Education can improve my ability to understand Biology-English article and translate this article into Indonesian well.

Since followed this course, my English vocabulary is improved by reading the articles and translate it into Indonesian. Automatically, I opened the dictionary to found the meaning of new difficull word. From learning these articles also I could learn how to understand and how to catch the point contained in a passage. It is obtained by answered the questions about the passage or article.

Beside I got the ability to translate and to understand the articles, I also able a little bit to make sentences or short paragraph in English . Although I didn’t make it well, but I always try to make a short paragraph. It is developed by making course journal of what each course bring. The activity of course in every week must be written in a a short paragraph.

After learn to understand articles, translate the articles, and make a short paragraph, I also learn spoken English. I must make a short presentation of one summary scientific journal. Beside all what I’ve evaluation above, I also got lesson about ethics, how the true way to asked dispensation.

My expectation for the next, I can be better than I’ve done during this time.

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